Book Ⅰ~ Book Ⅲ
CONTENTS
Welcome to You All!
註釈略語表
BookⅠ
Book IIa(1~527)
Book IIb(528~1055)
Book IIIA(1~371)
Book IIIB(372~742)





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 ようこそParadise Lost

作者ミルトンに関する大まかな情報や、作品の概要、詩形の特徴などを、Part one で読んで、このページにたどり着き、いよいよ本文(Text)を読み始められる皆さんに対して、主宰者 hokuto77 として深い敬意を表し、心から歓迎します。
 キリスト教の信者ではないし、まるで無宗教の自分には、このような作品は無関係だと、ついつい思いがちです。おまけに、Satanにしても、天使達にしてもその他の諸々の登場人物達も日本文化で育った者にとっては具体的な人間像に置き換え難く、コメディータッチの息抜き的な表現や、内容は一かけらもないし、うっとうしい限りだと、さっさと切り上げたくなるのは、ごく自然なことです。
 清教徒革命とは、結局何だったのかと、この作品によって、ミルトンはその革命を何らかの形で体験した人々への問いかけを目指しているのだと、それがこの作品の趣旨であると専門の批評家達が言わるとおりでしょうが、一旦読み始めると逆に離れることが難しくなります。すでに、Part oneコメントで述べていて、 hokuto77のわたくし事で恐縮ですが、Book IのⅠ行目に20代の初めで出会い、その後40数年間も念頭から離れないのも、その一つの証かもしれません。
 70歳の大台に乗って遥か先を見通すよりも、当面、第三巻が終了しそうだと気づき、ひとまずそこまでをネットにアップロードしようと決めました。明治学院大の大場建治名誉教授のように、73歳から、対訳・注解シェクスピア選集を公にされ始められ、全十巻を見事に完成された博覧強記で宇宙人的な気力、体力をお持ちの方もいらっしゃいます。しかしこちらは、文字とおり、ぺダンチックな素人の下手の横好きで、むしろ家族や人様に迷惑を掛ける仕儀となりかねず、そろそろ潮時だろうと踏んでのことです。
 残り少々でその三巻の注釈が終わる時点で、初めて日本語の翻訳版を紐解きました。それは岩波文庫の赤帯びで出ている、故平井正穂東大名誉教授訳の「失楽園(上・下)」です。平井名誉教授の逸話は、Guidanceの「はじめに」でも触れています。翻訳を手掛けられたその時、すでに故人であった藤井武氏の1938年の訳と、同じく故人であった、繁野天来氏の1929年の訳に「大きな恩恵を蒙った」と謝意を表しておられますが、平明、自然体で流暢、達意の現代文で感動的な訳文です。この訳文と原文を突き合わせながら読み進めば、小生のこのうっとうしい注釈などは無用の長物そのものです。(尚、繁野天来氏は小生の注解では、(MS)として、中心的な役割を果たしていただいている方です。)
<参考資料>
平井
正穂(ひらい まさお、
19111210 - 2005224)は、日本の英文学者福岡県久留米市に生まれ、福岡市で育つ。旧制第八高等学校卒業後、1935東京帝国大学英文科卒業、大学院に進む。1937年、助手に採用される。1940年、旧制新潟高等学校教授、東大教授斎藤勇の女婿となる。1948年、東大英文科助教授、教授を務め、69年から71年まで文学部長、72年定年退官後は武蔵大学教授。日本英文学会会長を務めた。日本学士院会員。(ウィキぺディアフリー百科より)

閑話休題、本題に戻って、平井名誉教授ご自身が翻訳の「解説」で述べておられる内容をⅠ部引用させていただきます。
(なお、平井名誉教授は敬虔なクリスチャンです。)

 --- 『失楽園』は、イギリス十七世紀の歴史的な産物ということができる。しかし、また同時に、現在ここに生きている私の心を深く、強く、ほとんど断  ちがたいほどまでとらえて離さない何かがそこにあるということは、この作品が広く人間性の問題にかかわる普遍的なもの、その意味では、世界文学的なもの を、充分にもっていることを示している。この作品が時間的にも空間的にも特殊なものであるとともに、時間、空間をこえた普遍的なものであること、いいか えれば、直接的には、イギリス清教徒革命をさまざまな立場から体験した読者を対象として書かれているとともに、われわれのような読者おも対象としてまた 書かれていること ---(岩波「失楽園下」421ページ)
 「 
---ミルトン自身、多くの読者がえられるとは期待していなかった。
      [( still govern thou my song, / Urania, and fit audience find, though few. )(Book VII 30~31)
    (still=ever: Urania=Heavenly Muse, thouともに呼びかけ: fit=suitable: though few=even if they are few)]
  イギリス乃至西欧の文学・文化の結晶である最高の作品の一つとして読みつがれてきた。---キリスト教乃至宗教的人間観が完全に払拭されない限り、---とくに『失楽園』は、西欧で読み継がれてゆくことは確実であろう。もちろん、文化的・人間的コンテキストを異にするわれわれがミルトンを読むという作業は困難なことである。それでも、もしわれわれに、一切を単なる偶然的なメカニズムにかたづけるのでなく、なんらかの宗教的意識があれば、死とか愛とか自然とかについて、悩み、自らの内なる地獄について悩む心があれば、日本古来の庭園を見てそこに彼岸の象徴を見、内なる庭を祈り求める心があれば、この遠い異邦人の作品もわれわれにとって無縁のものではないはずだ。---。」 (岩波「失楽園下」430ページ)

 平井名誉教授は、この作品の中に、洋の東西を問わず人間の精神的な存在の根源的なものが織り込まれていると言っておられます。作品のセッティングの項で説明してありますが、叙事詩としての背景設定の雄大性は特異なものです。しかもそうして出来上がった作品が普遍性を備えているというのは、文学作品としては、第一級のものであると言えます。
 源氏が時空を超えて読み継がれ、漱石の心が連綿と愛読され、King Lear研究、上演が鑑賞する人々の心を奪い続けるのは、やはりそこに、人間性に関する普遍的な真実があるからでしょう。そのような文学作品は、国内外を問わず枚挙にいとまがありません。ミルトンParadise Lost
も是非、若い人々の関心の対象になってほしいものだと願ってやみません。

(Feb.2010 by hokuto77)









































註釈略語表

<略語表 (使用辞書、引用した註釈書の略語)>
 OED(The Oxford English Dictionary)英語による語釈では、ほとんどの場合に、OED第二版によっている。した
  がって、該当する語を含む詩行が引用例文となっていない場合は、語釈の末尾に
(OED)とは明記していない。

   [OEDが用例として引用した場合は、相当吟味した上でのことと見なして、その後の研究成果として詩行中の語釈が変化
  している場合もあるだろうが、余りにも浅学非才でチェック不能である点をご容赦いただくと幸甚である。
]

   高校卒業程度で読めるような注釈を作ろうと思いついた当初は、出来るだけ語釈は日本語でと考えていたが、OEDを入
  手してからは、逆に可能な限り、英英的な語釈に切り替えた。
ただ、英英の定義で、イメージが浮かびにくいと思われ
  る場合は、日本語訳を付した。
また、定義されている英文中に馴染みの薄い、あるいは新出語と予想される語には、日本
  語による定義を付した。

COD(The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English),  POD(The Pocket Oxford Dictionary of
 Current English),  OALD(Oxford, Advanced Learner’s
Dictionary of Current English)これらの定義も活
  用しているが、特別な場合を除いて辞書名は明記していない。

・大英和: Kenkyusha’s New English-Japanese Dictionary
・斎藤():熟語本位 英和中辞典(岩波書店)
MS氏: Masaru Shigeno(繁野天来氏)による、研究社発行(大正十五年十月二十日)「Paradise Lost」の註釈
          [ MS氏は、22冊の註釈書、27冊の評伝、4冊のミルトン専用辞典、6冊の翻訳(フランス語訳とドイツ語訳も含
     む)を利用された。特に、
David Massonの註釈、評伝に重きを置いておかれた。]
JL氏:John Leonard氏が 2000Penguin Classicsの「Paradise Lost」に付された註釈
      [JL
氏はthe University of Western Ontarioで教鞭を取っておられ、ミルトンに関する研究、著作、編著が
      多数ある。
]
DC Dartmouth Collegeがwebsiteに挙げているPL Book I-Notesから引用したものであることを示す。
平井氏: 平井正穂氏による、岩波書店発行(1981年1月16日)「失楽園」の註釈
・インタネットからの引用は最小限にした。関連項目へのリンクで時間を取られすぎるのは、Textそのものの読みと鑑賞の
 時間が圧迫されるので避けてある。
・各語の発音は都合によって発音記号を付すことが出来ないため、不確かな場合は辞書で確認する必要がある。ギリシャ・
 ローマの神話、聖書の固有名詞、地名の発音などは可能な限りカタカナで示してある。
Dore:ミルトンをはじめ多くの古典文学作品などのimagesを作成した画家
 彼の画像をコピーした場合に、
Doreと表記している。以下を参照して下さい。

  貼り付けられている画像が、場違いだと気付かれた場合は、湧き上がる違和感は出来るだけ早く払拭して、textの読み集中して下さい。編著者(Hokuto77)の画像処理不慣れが原因です。ご迷惑を深くお詫び申し上げます。

<略語表(記号など)>

 adj.: adjective adv.: adverb C: complement Cf., cf.:confer, 'compare' 
 e.g.: exempli gratia, 'for example'   esp.: especially

 fig.: figuratively   i.e. : id est 'that is'
  N: noun  O: object   pl.: plural  S: subject  V: verb
  文型の表示: SV, SVC, SVO, SVOO, SVOC

































BookⅠ (1-798) 


         Summary To the lines To Analysis
 Book I of Paradise Lost begins with a prologue in which Milton performs the traditional epic task of invoking the Muse and stating his purpose. He invokes the classical Muse, Urania, but also refers to her as the "Heav'nly Muse," implying the Christian nature of this work. He also says that the poem will deal with man's disobedience toward God and the results of that disobedience. He concludes the prologue by saying he will attempt to justify God's ways to men.
 Following the prologue and invocation, Milton begins the epic with a description of Satan, lying on his back with the other rebellious angels, chained on a lake of fire. The poem thus commences in the middle of the story, as epics traditionally do. Satan, who had been Lucifer, the greatest angel, and his compatriots warred against God. They were defeated and cast from Heave
n into the fires of Hell.
 Lying on the lake, Satan is described as gigantic; he is compared to a Titan or the Leviathan. Next to Satan lies Beelzebub, Satan's second in command. Satan comments on how Beelzebub has been transformed for the worse by the punishment of God. Still he adds that it is his intention to continue the struggle against Go
d, saying, "Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven" (263).
 With effort, Satan is able to free himself from his chains and rise from the fire. He flies to a barren plain, followed by Beelzebub. From the plain, Satan calls the other fallen angels to join him, and one by one they rise from the lake and fly to their leader. As they come, Milton is able to list the major devils that now occupy Hell: Moloch, Chemos, Baalem, Ashtaroth, Astarte, Astoreth, Dagon, Rimmon, Osiris, Isis, Orus, Mammon, and Belial. Each devil is introduced in a formal cataloguing of demons. These fallen angels think that they have escaped from their chains through their own power, but Milton makes it clear that God alone has allowed them to do this.
 This devil army is large and impressive but also aware of its recent ignominious defeat. Satan addresses them and rallies them. He tells them that they still have power and that their purpose will be to oppose God, adding, "War then, War / Open or understood, must be resolv'd" (661–62)
 This speech inspires the devil host, and under Mammon's direction, they immediately begin work on a capital city for their Hellish empire. They find mineral resources in the mountains of Hell and quickly begin to construct a city. Under the direction of their architect, Mulciber, they construct a great tower that comes to symbolize the capital of Hell, Pandemonium. The devil army, flying this way and that, is compared to a great swarm of bees. When the work is done and the capital completed,
they all assemble for
the first great council.
 (Quoted from 'Cliffs Notes')
Words notes by hokuto77:
Uraniaユレニア(Latin)=the muse of astronomy
epic=a long narrative poem describing a series of actions of a hero or a nation’s history 叙事詩
invoke=call on God, a deity, etc.) in prayer or as a witness; appeal to for aid or protection
Muse= (in ancient Greek and Roman stories) one of the nine Goddesses who encouraged poetry, music and other
    branches of art and literature
           imply=suggest indirectly
rebellious=resisting against any authority        compatriots i.e. fellow-angels  [(口語)仲間、同僚]
barren=poor, unproductive, not yielding crops    ignominious =dishonorable, shameful
rally(v)=gather, collect together again after a defeated retreat, in order to continue fighting
pandemonium=complete confusion + place of all demons  [demon=a spirit, supernatural being; a spirit of evil, devil]


Please click the lines to jump where you finished reading last time
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1 ~ 20 21 ~40 41 ~ 60 61 ~ 80   81 ~ 100
101 ~ 120 121 ~ 140 141 ~ 160 161 ~ 180 181 ~ 200
201 ~ 220 221 ~ 240 241 ~ 260 261 ~ 280 281 ~ 300
301 ~ 320 321 ~ 340 341 ~ 360 361 ~ 380 381 ~ 400
401 ~ 420 421 ~ 440 441 ~ 460 461 ~ 480 481 ~ 500
501 ~ 520 521 ~ 540 541 ~ 560 561 ~ 580 581 ~ 600
601 ~ 620 621 ~ 640 641 ~ 660 661 ~ 680 681 ~ 700
701 ~ 720 721 ~ 740 741 ~ 760 761 ~ 780 781 ~ 798






































お手持ちのディスプレイのサイズによっては、[F11]を押してください。


 Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste
Brought death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful seat,
Sing, Heavenly Muse, that, on the secret top     5
Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire

That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed
In the beginning how the heavens and earth
Rose out of Chaos: or, if Sion hill ~            10

語 釈②
inspire=infuse some thought or feeling into(a person,etc),as
  if by breathing; animate or actuate by
 some mental or
  spiritual influence. a. spec. (Theol., etc) Said of God or
  the Holy Spirit, or of a divinity or supernatural being:
 (OED4a)
霊感を与える  chosen=theol. chosen of God; elect
 (OED2)
神に選ばれた  seed()子孫(=offspring) or むしろ
Chaos (ˈkeɪɒs)=the 'great deep' or 'abyss' out of which the
  cosmos or order of the universe was evolved (OED2a
はこ
 こを引用
)
     Sion (ˈsaiən)=Zion.
[
構文註釈]は、bilingual でない読者が英文textを理解するための手段で、繰り返し読むべき対象がtextであることは言を待たない。
構文註釈①

1~8 Sing, Heavenly Muse, that,----on~Of Oreb, or of Sinai,
 didst inspire That shepherd who taught the chosen seed,
 
Of Man’s first---and the fruit Of---tree whose---taste
 Brought death into---,and all ou rwoe, With loss of---, till
 one greater Man Restore---,and regain the---
の構文

  *Sing, Heavenly Muse, 呼びかけの願い、依頼 *that---didst
    inspire ~seed
先行詞は
Heavenly Muse   Of Oreb, or of
   Sinai
は、
MosesGenesisを書いた場所がいずれか定かでない
  からこの表現となる
(
MS)didst 強調 ・Heavenly Muse
   divine poetical inspirationの擬人化
(MS)(平井 )詩神

 [Is the "Heavenly Muse" invoked here the same as the
"
Urania," traditionally the muse of astronomy, invoked at
Book7.1? More likely, contemporary readers would have first
thought of the
"Holy Spirit," as the inspiration of Moses.]DC
  *Sing~Of Man's---disobedience and the fruit~
     A(B+C)
共通関係 A=Of  *that shepherd=
Moses, the
    supposed author of
Genesis(JL)  *the chosen seed=
     the people of Israel. See
Exodus 19-20 (DC)
  *man’s=mankind’s and Adam’s (JL)
  *fruit果実+報い,結果(JL) *that forbidden tree 
    the Tree of Knowledgeをさす(MS) 
<参考1>
 シナイ山-ざん、-さん、アラビア語:جبل موسى、ヘブライ語:הר סיני、英語:Mount Sinai は、シナイ半島にある、モーセが神から十戒を授かったとされる場所。ホレブ山 (en:Horeb) とも呼ば れる。聖書のシナイ山の正確な場所は定かではないが、アラブ人がジェベル・ムーサーJabal Mūsā, アラビア語で「モーセ山」の意)と呼ぶシナイ半島南部の山(標高2,285m)に古くから比定され、アブラハムの宗教によって神聖視されている。
 
ーゼと十戒
 
モーゼと選民
ジェベル・ムーサーにはモーセに関わる伝承を持つ泉や岩が数多く存在し、土地の人々の信仰の対象となっている。3世紀には聖カタリナ修道院が建設された。一方、ジェベル・ムーサー近辺には聖書の描写に合致するような広大な平原が存在しないこと、エジプトからパレスチナへの通り道としては南すぎる、などの理由から、近年、一部の聖書学者たち はその北側のラス・サフサファ(Ras Safsafeh/
Sufsafeh)
シナイ山と同定している。    To the lines  
 語 釈   of= concerning, about, with regard to. After verbs,
 substantives, and adjectives.
after intransitive verbs; esp.
  those of learning, knowing, thinking,and "---" hear, know, tell,
 write,and the like (OED26a
はここを引用)
disobedience=violation of a command by omitting to conform to
 it, or of a prohibition by acting in defiance of it
(OED1)
forbidden fruit:(a) that forbidden to Adam (Gen.ii.17), also fig.
mortal=causing death, deadly, fatal. Const.to (OED2aはここを引
 用
)  taste=the act of tasting,or perceiving the flavour of a
  thing with the
organ of taste; (OED II3aはここを引用)

death=the act or fact of dying; the end of life;"---" a. of an
  individual. b. in the abstract.(OED1b
はここを引用) woe(wəʊ=a
  condition of misery, affliction, or distress(OEDB1a
はここを引用)
Eden(ˈiːd(ə)n)[a. Heb. ēden; etymologically ‘pleasure, delight’]
  the abode of Adam and Eve at their creation,Paradise; also
  more fully, the garden of Eden (OED1)
    restore=replace
  (mankind) in a state of grace, free from the effect of
 sins
  (OED4e
)人類を神の恩恵を受ける元にもどす→贖う  
regain=
  recover possession of (something) (OED1
) 
blissful=of things:    full of or fraught with bliss(OED2はここを引用) 幸福に満ちた
seat=a place of habitation or settlement (of a tribe, people,etc)   (OED16a)  
blissful seat=Paradise(MS)  secret= of a place:
  removed from the resort of men;retired, remote, secluded,
  solitary
(OED1bはここを引用) 人里遠き(MS):ひそかな(平井)
Oreb(ˈɔːreb)=Horeb ホレブ山  Sinai(ˈsainiai)シナイ山

構文註釈②
   * ,till SV~brought death and woeを修飾しているが、全体の主
   題ではないので
and at last SVの解釈で可である。
  * with loss of Eden with=including(LDCE)
 
 *one greater Man i.e.
Christ, The Messiah
     greatergreater than mankindの意味(
MS)
  *Restore, regain i.e. Restores, regains

9~10 (taught---) how in the beginning the heavens and earth
 Rose out of Chaos: or if Sion hill ~
の構文

   *out of Chaos: One of Milton's several heterodox positions.
    Orthodoxy held that God created everything
ex nihilo, out
     of nothing
. Milton borrows the concept of chaos, or
    unformed matter, from
Hesiod and Platonic philosophy.
    Milton was also a monist, holding that all things were
    
created out of God
.(DC) /
ミルトンは神は「無」から世界を
   創ったのではない
と信じていたと(
JL)

     monist一元論者 monism=a general name for those
        theories which deny the duality
of matter and mind

  *Sion hill=Mount Zion, the site of Solomon’s Temple (JL)
   
Davidinspirationを得た山で the City of Davidと呼ばれた舊
   都
Jerusalemがここに建てられた (MS)
<参考2>
Oreb, Mount Horeb, Hebrew חֹרֵב, Greek in the SeptuagintχωρηβLatin in
the Vulgate
Horeb, is the place at which the book of Deuteronomy in the
Hebrew Bible states that the Ten Commandments were given to Moses by
God. 
It is described in two places (Exodus 3:1, 1 Kings 19:8) as הַר
הָאֱלֹהִים the Mountain of God or perhaps Mountain of the gods. 

 In other biblical passages these events are described as having
transpired at Mount Sinai, but though Sinai and Horeb are often
considered to have been different names for the same place, there is a
body of opinion that they were different locations.In any case there is no
direct evidence that they were identical.
*下左二枚の画像:ホレブ山で左画像の左上の方にモーゼが立っている。 右端画像:シナイ山

     
Passages earlier in the narrative text than the Israelite encounter with
Horeb indicate that the ground of the mountain was considered
holy (Exodus 3:)(from Wikipedia)
 *the book of Deuteronomy申命記 

Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that flowed
Fast by the oracle of God, I thence

Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above the Aonian mount, while it pursues       
 15
Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme.
And chiefly Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer
Before all temples the upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first
Wast present, and, with mighty wings outspread,   
20
語 釈②
rhyme=verse marked by consonance of the terminal sounds.
  In phr. in rhyme (OED2a
はここを引用) 韻文 *
consonance
 子音韻;一致 
cf.
assonance母音韻類韻  chiefly=above all,
  most of all  
Spirit=the Holy Spirit 聖霊 *ここでは、神が持
 っている、詩などの創造的な
ものを引き起こす霊感を詩人に与え
 る力の意味であろう。
before=in preference to, rather than
temple=fig.the person or body of a Christian(OED3)身体(心・
  heartと対比して) 
upright=(of the mind, qualities, actions,
  etc) characterized by integrity; having accordance with
  moral
rectitude (OED8bはここを引用) 正直な、高潔な
 
  *
rectitude公正、正直  instruct=trans. furnish with
  knowledge or information; train in knowledge or learning;
  teach, educate (OED1)
[語源のinstruere(L)=build, set up
 から、linking temples and heartを追加する見解もある
  -
John. Leonard]    wast=was    present i.e. existing
mighty=very large    outspread=spread out; expand
構文註釈①
(10)~13(or if Sion hill,) and Siloa’s brook that---by the
  oracle of God, Delight thee more, I thence Invoke thy---
  to my adventurous song, that ~
の構文
  *hill and brook delight thee 無生物主語  *thee=Heavenly
 Muse
   *thenceSion hillSiloa’s brookをさす

14~5 (song), That with no middle flight intends to soar Above the Aonian mount, ~の構文
  *thatの先行詞はsong    *with no middle flightSVに割り込
  み
  
no=used to emphasize that the opposite of a
     particular description is true(LDCE)
    e.g. If has to do it all by himself, it is no bad thing.
    (=a good thing)
  with no middle flight i.e. with very
     high flight
高い飛行で [
レベルの高い志と詩の比喩表現]    *the Aonian mount Apolloの住所(MS)  ・暗にHesiodを指す
  との見解もある
(
J L)   Hesiod 紀元前8世紀頃のギリシャの叙
  事詩人
(
大英和) Miltonは彼よりもさらに高くを志向したのか
15~6 , while it pursues Things (which are) unattempted yet
  in prose or rhyme.
の構文   *while it pursues things
   while=during which time, and meanwhile
  ・it=my adventurous song   *unattempted yet 
      
un---yet  i.e. not --- yet

17~9And chiefly Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer the upright
 and pure heart Before all temples,  Instruct me, for Thou
  know’st;
の構文  *O Spirit 哀願の呼びかけ *that dost~強調
    * ,for thou know’st;  forというのは---だから、
     ・Thou knowst「汝は何でも知っている」Cf. Iliad II, 484(MS)
    以下を参考のこと: 構文註釈②へ⇒
    To the lines

語 釈①
Siloa's brook (ˈsaɪʊ)サイロウの池(大英和)
i.e. Siloam (聖書) シロアムの池 (ソロモンの宮殿の近く;
<参考> John 9.7より:

And said unto him, Go, wash in the pool of
Siloam,
“---” He went his way therefore, and washed, and
came seeing.
 flow=move along in a current;
stream, run (OED1a
はここを引用)

fast by=close, very near 
 
oracle= a vehicle or medium of divine communication. a. that
  part of the
 Jewish Temple where the divine presence was
  manifested
神託所(OED3aはここを引用)   
thence=from that
 place; from there(OED1a
はここを引用) 
   invoke=call for (a
  thing) with earnest entreaty
懇願する 
 adventurous=full of risk
  or peril + enterprising, daring, venturesome
大胆かつ冒険的な
song=a metrical composition adapted for singing,esp. one in rime
  and having a regular verse-form; occas., a poem (OED2a
βは
 ここを引用
)   
soarascend to a towering height ①高い高度へ
 飛翔する
②他を圧するように歌い上げる +

Aonian(eɪˈəʊnɪən)= of or belonging to Aonia, a region of ancient
  Bœotia
, which contained the mountains Helicon and Cithaeron,
  sacred to
the Muses or ‘Aonian maids. (OEDはここを引用) 
Mount Helicon, on
which the town of
Ascra was located.
Mosesが住んだとある(大英和)街並みは
ancient Bœotia
    
pursue=try to obtain or accomplish; aim at (OED) =treat of(MS)
unattempted=not attempted or tried (OED 1はここを引用 )
prose=the ordinary form of written or spoken language, without
  metrical structure; esp. as a species or division of literature.
  Opposed to poetry, verse, rime, or metre (OED1a
はここを引用)

構文註釈②
 
  Bk II:484-580 The Catalogue of ShipsEastern Greeceの二つの
 英訳より
:
Tell me now, Muses, who live on Olympus – since you
 are goddesses, ever present and all-knowing, while we hearong
 rumour know nothing ourselves for sure;
The Muses are the daughters of Mnemosyne, Memory, and were raised on Mount Olympus.    
   ever presentfrom the first present(20)
  ・
all-knowingfor Thou knowstへと引用咀嚼が鮮明
   Homer Musesへ呼びかけた。MiltonSpiritへ呼びかけた。
   当然、Homerの願望に呼応することになるが、ここのSpiritは役割
   においては
HomerMusesと同等以上のものである。
  
Tell me now, Muses, whose homes are on Olympus, you who
  are truly goddesses indeed, always near at hand, wise in
  everything, whereas we hear rumours (of rumours) alone and
  know nothing (of nothing),
[by Linear B, Knossos & Mycenae]
20 Thou Wast present from the first, and, with ---
   outspread~
の構文  *with --- outspread ~  付帯

Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast Abyss,
And mad'st it pregnant: what in me is dark

Illumine, what is low raise and support;
That, to the height of this great argumehnt,
I may assert Eternal Providence,              
 25
And justify the ways of God to men.
Say firstfor Heaven hides nothing from thy view,
Nor the deep tract of Hell—say first what cause
Moved our grand Parents, in that happy state,
Favoured of Heaven so highly, to fall off        30

語 釈②
Providence =God(COD) / the power that control the world
(POD)=the foreknowing and beneficent care andgovernment
of God (or nature, etc) (OED3a)
摂理
justify --は正しいとする
tract=a space or expanse of land 広がり   cause=reason for
  action, motive
大儀 
move---to do~=urge---to do ~
grand=pre-eminent; all-inclusive, as in grand total (JL)
  first, great(
MS) cf. grandparents 祖父母 highly=greatly
state=condition or manner of existing       favour(v)特に目を
 かける
 
fall off from=of lovers or friends: part company,
  become estranged, draw off. of subjects: revolt, withdraw
  
from allegiance (OED91e
はここを引用)---から離反する

構文註釈①

(20)~22 (Thou) Dove-like sat’st brooding---with mighty
  wings outspread, And mad’st it pregnant:
の構文
   *thou=Spirit聖霊   *Dove-likesat’s brooding~の補語の
  働き
*with---outspread位置は流動的 *it=the vast Abyss
  
dove-like; broodingimageは聖書創世記などに由来
22~3 Illumine what is dark in me, raise and support what is
 low
の構文 *illumine, raise and support
聖霊への依頼、懇願
  *what is dark in me ミルトンはこの時に既に盲目である。
   [それが心意にある(
MS)]
   *Illumine, what is low raise and support;
      
弱強/  強 / / 強  弱/
   ・raise andによって、弱強のリズムに強弱を入れて破格に
    し
raiseを鮮明に強調(MS)
24~5 That I may assert Eternal Providence, And justify the
  ways of God to men, to the highth of this great
 argument.
 
の構文

   *この3行がMiltonによるこの長編叙事詩創作の主目的である。
  専門の批評家達は、
この主題と作品の整合性を検討して出来栄
  えを云々する。二束三文の価値もないと断定する高名な詩人兼
  劇作家兼批評家
(
T.S. Eliot)もいた。この痛罵に対して、聖心
  女子大学名誉教授
道家弘一郎氏は正々堂々敢然と反論しておら
  れる。
hokuto77は、道家先生主催のMilton読書会に参加させ
  て頂き、謦咳に接して多大な啓発を頂いた。
  *that --- may ~ 目的構文
<参考①> 26行に関して:Book VIII 413~4より:
   To attain / the highth and depth of thy eternal ways /
   All human thoughts come short, Supreme of Things!
     (Supreme of Things! は神への呼びかけ)
    
平井正穂訳ではどちらのwaysも「神の配慮(おもい)」とし
   てある。敬虔な信者でなければ浮ばない日本語であろう。
             ( By hokuto77, on Mach 2, 2010)
<参考②> Miltonbroodingに関する評価、見解等
 
Authorized Version“movedと訳されているヘブライ語には
flutteredbroodedの両義があるという。(MS)
 ・
Milton's "brooding" is a better translation of the Hebrew
than the familiar "
moved upon the face of the waters" of the
Authorized version of
Genesis 1:2. (DC) John Leonardによる
Miltonは欽定訳に従わないでラテン語の旧訳聖書からincubabat
 語 釈①
dovelike(ˈdʌvlaɪk)=like a dove; after the manner of a dove (OED
 はここを引用) The Holy Spirit appears as a dove in John 1:
  32.(
DC) *[32 And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit
  descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him.]
sit=take up or continue in the posture necessa-
ry the hatching of eggs. Also const.on. In older
use freq. sit abrood: see abrood adv. (OED10b
fig.
はここを引用)  brood=sit as a hen on eggs;
sit or hover with outspread
cherishing wings  
 
 wings(OED5はここを引用)  the vast Abyss=Chaos (MS) (天地創
 造以前の
)混沌  
 pregnant=that has conceived in the womb +
  fertile  
dark=void of intellectual light, mentally or spiritually
  blind; unenlightened, uninformed, destitute of  knowledge,
  ignorant (OED10
はここを引用)
    illumine=enlighten mentally
  or intellectually (OED3
はここを引用) 光明を投じる
raise=elevate (the thoughts, mind, etc.), make higher or nobler
  (OED19b
はここを引用)   
highth=height 高み(=loftiness)
argument
=subject-matter of discussion or discourse in speech or
  
writing (OED6)
  assert=maintain the cause of, take the part
  of; defend (OED2
はここを引用)---の大儀を主張する、---を弁明す
 る  
eternal=that always has existed and always will exist:
  esp. of the Diving Being(OED1a
はここを引用)
構文註釈②

 *to the height of---argumentの位置は流動的 =as high as ---
     
to[限度・程度] ---に至るまで       e.g. to the best of my
       knowledge =as far as I know

 *Eternal Providence 永遠の摂理 (ここでは神の働きを総称した表現
  ではないのか
-
hokuto77)
 *the ways of God to men=the course of God’s providence to
   men

27~8 Say firstfor Heaven hides nothing from thy view, Nor the
  deep tract of Hell
Nor the deep tract of Hell (hides anything
  from thy view)
の構文      *thy i.e. Spirit
   
<参考>*27~28行に関して、平井正穂訳注に詩篇1398とある。
     
Psalm 1398:
    
If I ascend up into heaven,  thou art there: if I make my
      bed in hell, behold, thou art there.

    ・これは、
MSJLも言及していない。聖書を愛読して可能か?
28~30 say first what cause Moved---Parents, (though) in that
  happy state, (being) Favoured of
Heaven so highly to fall off~
  の構文
  *moved---to fall~ i.e. urged---to fall~   *our grand Parents
   i.e. Adam and Eve
   *in that happy state, favoured of ~
    i.e. though they had been in that happy state, though they
    had been favoured of~ 
譲歩---にありながら、---にも拘らず

<参考②> 続き:
  (=
brooded)を採用しa brooding doveimageを保った。これらに関
 しては以下を参考のこと

 This is the spirit that Moses says, in the first Book of Genesis,
that moved upon the face of the waters
 at the time of creation.
  Milton goes beyond the image of this creation, "---" He looks
back even further.
 Milton goes back to the Latin version of the
Bible which translates the Hebrew word for moved as
incubabat.
"---" Incubate is the strange Latin word, "---" it's a verb
typically used with relation not to
spirits but to gestating birds,
and it literally means "to brood." To incubate means to brood or
to sit on
one's eggs until they hatch. And so Milton's Holy Spirit,
the creative force behind the entire universe,
actually sat
brooding on the vast abyss, sitting on the waters of chaos just
as a mother dove might sit on
 her eggs.
   To the lines

From their Creator, and transgress his will
 For one restraint, lords of the World besides.
Who first seduced them to that foul revolt?
The infernal Serpent; he it was whose guile,
Stirred up with envy and revenge, deceived        
35
The mother of mankind, what time his pride
Had cast him out from Heaven, with all his host
Of rebel Angels, by whose aid, aspiring
To set himself in glory above his peers,
He trusted to have equalled the Most High,     
40
構文註釈①
30~3 (to fall off) From their Creator, and transgress his will
  For one restraint, (being) lords of the World
 Besides. Who
  first seduced---to that foul revolt?
の構文
  *his i.e. their Creator
   *for one restraintto fall off~,
    transgress
の両方にかかる副詞句
(A+B)Cfor=because of
   *lords of the World our grand Parents (Adam and Eve)
  その禁止かなければなっていたはずの地位
    *one restraint
      i.e.the prohibition of eating fruits which the tree of
       knowledge bears      *lords of the World besides
     i.e. they would be lords of the World without the one
      restraint 
 besides (=or else, otherwise)fall off
     from---transgress~も含むと解釈しがちだが、
堕落の根源
    は
the one restraintの存在である。

  *that foul revoltone restraintに対するもの。神の掟に背い
   て知識の木の実を食べたこと

34~6 The infernal Serpent (did); it was he, whose guile,
  (being) Stirred with envy and revenge,(that)deceived The
  mother of mankind,
の構文
   *he=The infernal Serpent (i.e. the Devil, Satan) 前半の主
   要人物となる
Satanの化身を文頭に挙げた。
   *it was he, whose guile, that was Stirred with ~, (that)
   deceived---
強調構文  ・with=by  envy神が寵愛して
   いる人間が幸せに
Paradiseで暮らしていることへの嫉み
    ・revengeその人間を堕落させることで、自分の主張を受け
    入れず地獄に落とした神への腹いせを実行
(これで見ると
    
Satanも大物などではなくheroには成りえない)
    ・the mother of mankind=Eve

36~8 ,what time his pride Had cast him out---, with all his
  host Of rebel Angels,
の構文
<参考①>Revelation 12:7-9 And there was war in heaven:
 
Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the
dragon fought and his angels, And prevailed not;

neither was their place found any more in heaven. And the

語 釈
transgress=go beyond the bounds or limits prescribed by (a law,
  command, etc.)--
に背く  
one=one in contrast to two or
  more: one and no more, one only; a single (OED7a
はここを引用)
restraint禁止  besides =otherwise, else    who=as the ordinary
  interrogative pronoun, in the nominative singular orplural,
  used of a person or persons: corresponding to what of things
(whatA.1)(OED1a
はここを引用)
foul=morally or spiritually polluted
seduce---to~(うまく言い含めて)人を--へ導く、~へと
 誘惑するabominable 忌わしい  revolt=an instance,
on the part of subjects or subordinates, of casting
off allegiance or obedience to their rulers or
superiors;an insurrection, rising, or rebellion (OED1

ここを引用
)反逆、反乱 infernal 地獄の  guile=deceit,
treachery
奸計   
stir up 刺激する、扇動する
revenge=a desire to repay injuries by inflicting hurt
  in return.
†Also in pl. (OED1bはここを引用) 
 
deceive=trans. ensnare; take unawares by craft or guile;
  overcome, overreach, or get the better of by trickery;beguile
  or betray into mischief or sin; mislead. Obs. (or arch.) (OED1

 はここを引用
)
  cast=drive out forcibly, expel, make an
  outcast. lit. and fig. (OED81b
はここを引用)--から投げ出す
host=an army 軍勢   rebel=refusing obedience to the rightful
  ruler
不従順な  
aspire to do を熱望する   peer 同輩、仲間
  (
他の天使達のこと)   
trust to do=hope to do   equal=be or
  become equal to; 'come up to', match, rival (OED 3
はここを引
 用
)

構文註釈②
  *what time (relative use) = (as conj.) at the time,"---";
     when;"---"(OED10a) 
not a Latinism(JL)
 
*過去完了形 had cast に注目 *his pride cast him 無生物主語
 
*with all his host Of~  with---と共に、一緒に

38~40 aspiring To set himself in glory above---, by whose aid,
  He trusted to have equaled the MostHigh, ~
の構文
     *aspiring ~; by whose aid 両方ともHe trusted ~を修飾
   ・
whose先行詞はall his host Of rebel Angels
   *set himself in glory above---の上に出て、栄光の座につくこと
   ・
aspiringO
    *trusted to have equaled~匹敵すると望んだが(実現しなかった)
  *th
e most high i.e. God
<参考②>
Revelation 12:7-9           To the lines
 great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil,
 and
Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast
 out into the earth, and
his angels were cast out with him.

If he opposed, and with ambitious aim
Against the throne and monarchy of God,

Raised impious war in Heaven and battle proud,
With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Power
Hurled headlong flaming from the ethereal sky,    
45
With hideous ruin and combustion, down
To bottomless perdition, there to dwell
In adamantine chains and penal fire,
Who durst defy th' Omnipotent to arms.
Nine times the space that measures day and night 50

構文註釈①
41~4 If he opposed (the Most High), and with---aim Against
   the--- ~of God, (he) Raised---war and proud
 battle in
  ---With vain attempt.
 の構文

    *If he opposed,trusted to have equalledを修飾
       ・
he=Satan

    *the throne of monarchy of God 共通関係 A(B+C) A=the
       *with vain attempttrusted to have equalledと呼応

44~79 the Almighty Power Hurled Him, Who dust defy th’
  Omnipotent to arms, headlong flaming
 from---With---ruin
  and---,down To bottomless perdition.
の構文

   *the Almighty Power i.e. God  *hurled---from~, down
     to---
の構造  *headlonghurled,
 flamingは落下する時
     の
himの様子   * the ethereal sky=Heaven 天上 
   *with ruin and combustion
from---,down to~の堕天使達
    の落下
(ruin)の付帯状況*bottomless perdition i.e. Hell

    *Whoの先行詞はHim   defy---to~   *the Omnipotent
     i.e. the Almighty Power, God

47~9 to dwell there In adamantine chains and penal fire,
  の構文  
*to dwell運命・結果の不定詞 
         *there=in the bottomless perdition

50 (for) Nine times the space that measures day and night~
 の構文  i.e. for nine days and nights
昼夜を9回測る間(人間界
   の時間に換算して
)

語 釈②
omnipotent(ɒmˈnɪpətənt)=absol. or as n. an omnipotent
  being; spec. (with the) the Almighty, God (OED3
はここを引
 用
)   
arms 戦闘、戦争   space=with the (that, etc.) the
  
amount or extent of time comprised or contained in a
  specified Period (OED 3a) (
時の)  =linear distance;
  interval between two or more points or objects(OED 5a)
   *
linear直線の(John Leonard)

measure(v)=have a measurement of
46 <参考資料> St. Luke Chapter 10: 18
   And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall
   from heaven.
he=the Lord, Jesus I=he as=like  beholdOC
                             To the lines

語 釈①
oppose=set oneself against; endeavor to overthrow(OED9a)
aim=fig. the act of directing the efforts towards an object;
  intention, purpose. (OED5
はここを引)    
 ambitious=full of
  ambition, thirsting after honour or advancement; aspiring to
  high position
(OED 1はここを引用)   
 throne=the position or
  office or dignity of a sovereign
王位、王権

monarchy(ˈmɒnəkɪ)=undivided rule by a single person; absolute
  power. Obs. [L. monarchia=rule of one](OED)---Gk.
Monarkhia
  ='the rule of one' (COD)    impious(ˈɪmpɪəs) 神を敬わない
proud 尊大な
   vain=(虚栄心からくる)fruitless    hurl --- from
  ~=throw or cast or toss --- with violence from~

headlong=head down-mostまっさかさまに  ethereal
(iːˈθɪərɪəl)=(poet.)heavenly()天上の  ethereal
sky
天界   hideous(ˈhɪdɪəs)frightful, dreadful,
terrible, horrible; hence,
horribly ugly or
unpleasing, repulsive, revolting. (OED1a
はここを引
)    ruin=the act (of a person) falling to the
 
  ground or from a height. (OED 1b) (JL)   combustion=violent
  excitement, disorder, confusion, tumult(Exceedingly common in
  17th and 18th c.)
(OED5b)  
perdition=the place of destruction
  or damnation (OED2c
はここを引用) 地獄 
   adamantine
  (ædə
ˈmæntɪn)=incapable of being broken, dissolved, or
  penetrated(OED)
   
chain=as employed to restrain or fetter;
  hence a bond or fetter generally; esp. in pl. fetters, bonds;
  OED2a
はここを引用)
 penal=having the nature or character of
punishment;(OED1c
はここを引用)刑罰としての 
fire=with reference
to hell or purgatory; (OED1c
はここを引用)   
durst()dareの過去
 形  
defy(dɪˈfaɪ)=challenge to combat or battle(OED 2a はここ
 を引用
)

<参考資料②> II Peter 2.4より;48 adamantine chainsについて(JL)
    For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast
   them down to hell, and delivered them
into chains of
  darkness, to be reserved unto judgment;

  Revelation 2. 1-2より; (Authorized Version)
   AND I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the
  key of the bottomless pit and a great chainin his hand. /

 
And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is
 the Devil, and Satan, and
bound him a thousand years,
  この表現ズバリは、Phineas FletcherThe Purple Island (1633)xii
  64
節にある。
  The Dragon, wounded with this flaming brand,
They take, and in strong bonds and fetters tie:
Short was the fight, nor could he long withstand
Him, whose appearance is his victorie.
  So now he’s bound in adamantine chain;
He storms, he roars, he yells for high disdain:
His net is broke, the fowl go free, the fowler ta’ne. 

To mortal  men, he, with his horrid crew,
Lay vanquished, rolling in the fiery gulf,

Confounded, though immortal. But his doom
Reserved him to more wrath; for now the thought
Both of lost happiness and lasting pain       
55
Torments him: round he throws his baleful eyes,
That witnessed huge affliction and dismay,
Mixed with obdurate pride and steadfast hate.
At once, as far as Angel’s ken, he views
The dismal situation waste and wild.           
 60

構文註釈①
(50)~53 (for) Nine times the space that measures day and
  night To mortal men, he, with his horrid
 crew, Lay
  vanquished, rolling---,Confounded, though immortal.
の構文

  *to mortal men 人間のとっての    *he, his i.e. Satan    *with~ と共に  *lay vanquished SV構文
 
*rolling, confounded 付帯  *though immortal i.e. though
     he was immortal

53~6 But his doom Reserved him to more wrath; for now the
  thought Both of lost---and~ Torments him:
の構文
  *reserve A to B BのためにA を生かしておく
  
*his, him i.e.
Satan   *more wrath Satanの反逆に対
  する怒りよりも更に強い、神の側の怒り  ・
more=greater
   
Satanを更に激しく苦しめることを指している
    *both A and B  * his doom reserved / the thought of~
    torments---
無生物主語

56~8 he throws round his baleful eyes, That witnessed huge
  affliction and dismay, (being) Mixed with obdurate---and~
  hate.
の構文
    *throw---eyes~ 辺りを見回す ・現在時制は描写の活性化
 
*thatの先行詞はbaleful eyes  *huge affliction and
    dismay
は、
Satan 自身の心の内
 
*mixed with~affliction and dismayを修飾
   *
58 Mixed with obdurate pride and steadfast hate

      強     |弱 強|弱 強|  弱    |弱  強
59~60 At once, as far as angel's ken, he views The dismal
  situation (which is) waste and wild.
の構文
      *as far as angel’s ken i.e. to Angel's range of sight
    *waste and wild  ・wの頭韻 (ここの2語は同意語)

語 釈
mortal=destined to die, subject to death cf. immortal    mortal
 
men i.e. human beings  horrid 忌まわしい   crew(しばしば軽
 蔑的に
) 仲間、連中  
vanquish(ˈvæŋkwɪʃ)=overcome, defeat in
  battle + expel, banish
  roll(v)=turn over, esp. while lying on
  the ground 
 fiery=flaming with fire  gulf=a deep hollow,abyss
confounded=confused, disordered 混乱した cf.confound=
  defeat utterly
        
 immortal=deathless, living for ever
doom=fate, lot (usually of adverse fate)  reserve=set(a person)
  apart for/to some fate, destiny, end, etc
留保しておく
wrath=righteous indignation on the part of the Deity(OED1d) +
  extreme angerfor now=until a late time
    
lost =(of which
  someone has been
 deprived) not retained in
possession; no
  longer to be found(OED 2
はここを引用)

lasting=continuing; permanent    torment 苦痛を与える    baleful=painful + sorrowful(OED)  throw---eyes roundな表情で
 辺りを見回す  
affliction=a pain, calamity, grief, distress(OED
  3)
苦痛、難儀  
dismay(dɪsˈmeɪ)=faintness of heart from terror
  or from feeling of inability to cope with peril or calamity(OED)

 動転、動揺 
witness(v)=be a sign or mark of(OED1c)=give some
  sign of, show(
MS)   obdurate[× ' ×]=stubborn, obstinate
  (
ˈɒbstɪnət)頑なな  
  steadfast=(of persons) unshaken,
  immoveable in faith, resolution, friendship, etc;
also said of
  belief, purpose or affection (OED2a
はここを引用) 揺るがぬ

hate(n)=an emotion of extreme dislike; hatred     ken=range of
  sight or vision
   
view(v)=look at---more or less attentively
dismal(ˈdɪzməl)()恐ろしい、気味の悪い   situation=a place,
  locality (OED2b
はここを引用)     
  waste=desolate, barren荒廃
 した、不毛の
 
 wild=waste, desert, desolate dungeon(ˈdʌndʒən)
  =a dark, subterranean confinement(OED 2
Book317を引用)
 地下牢

   

                                 To the lines


A dungeon horrible, on all sides round,
As one great furnace flamed; yet from those flames
No light; but rather darkness visible
Served only to discover sights of woe,
Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace   65
And rest can never dwell, hope never comes
That comes to all, but torture without end
Still urges, and a fiery deluge, fed
With ever-burning sulphur unconsumed.
Such place Eternal Justice has prepared       
  70
構文註釈①
61~2 A horrible dungeon , As one great furnace flamed, on
  all sides round;
の構文
  * a dungeon horrible
60dismal situation と同格で具体
 的に説明したもの
(一つの大きな溶鉱炉が辺り一面にぐるーと炎を
 挙げているような、恐ろしい牢獄
)     *As---flamed [様態]

62~5 yet from those flames No light (came); but rather
  visible darkness Served only to discover sights Of woe,
  Regions of sorrow, doleful shades,
の構文
   *no---but~    *darkness visible 暗闇が見える程度のもの
    (
ミルトン自身の視力の喪失を暗示している) [いろいろな説明や
   解釈がある
(
MS)    *darkness Served ~無生物主語
   *sight of woe regions of---shadeは同格
  
*A(B+C) A=Regions of 共通関係
   *shades光が当たらないで物の動いている様が影として捉えら
   れる
65~9 where peace And rest can never dwell, hope never
  comes that comes to all, but torture without
end Still
  urges, and (so does) fiery deluge, (which is) fed With---
  (which is) unconsumed.
の構文
   *whereの先行詞は regions         *never---but~
   *hope never comes That comes to all thatの先行詞は
     hope

<参考①> 65~9に関して
  ・前後の文脈から hopeという語の出現は唐突感を拭えない。Danteの地獄篇の影響は確かであろうが、それ以外に、神子の贖罪による人類救済への布石としての意味合いもありそうである。興味深いことは、Satanが落とされたHellでは希望は巡って来ない。Danteの神曲の地獄にも希望は存在しない。話の飛躍のしすぎを無視すると、Obama大統領が核廃絶に向かっての動きを具体化してきたが、アメリカへ、世界へ「希望」をとり戻そうとする彼の発想からは、20世 紀に始まった核武装、核戦略の凌ぎ合いは、まさにSatanの落とされた地獄。
 Dante’s Hell (Inferno, Canto iii 9):
       ‘Abandon every hope, you who enter (MS)(JL)
 Euripides, Troades:
      ‘Even hope, that is left to all mortals, is not here’.
     (MS)(JL)
・希望は、地上の「全ての人間に訪れる」ことになっている。19世紀に活躍した文人R.L. Stevensonの随筆Virginibus Puerisqueの冒頭は、Hope, they say, deserts us at no period of our existence.で始まる。哲学者John Locke An essay concerning humane understanding(1690) の中でhopeに関して以下のように述べている。       To Buson Summer 'Tragedy or Hope' ➩
“Hope is that pleasure in the mind, which every one finds in himself upon the thought of a profitable future enjoyment of a thing, which is apt to delight him.”

   To Buson Autumn 'Tragedy or Hope Ⅱ'☞  To the lines
    Dante

語 釈
horrible=tending to make one shudder; dreadful, hideous,
  shocking, frightful, awful (OED Aa
はここを引用)
 
furnace
(ˈfɜːnɪs)溶鉱炉      flame(v)= emit flames (OED1aはここ
 を引用
)  
visible=capable of being seen; perceptible by the
  sense of sight (OED1a
はここを引用)   
serve to do---するのに
 役立つ
   darkness=absence or want of light (total or partial)
  (OED1
はここを引用)      
discover=afford a view of, show
  (OED3b
はここを引用) 
region=the sphere or realm of something
  (OED3b
はここを引用)  
doleful=causing grief, sorrow +
  distressful, gloomy, dreary, dismal (OED1
はここを引用) 物悲しい
peace=freedom from war, hostilities; calmness 平安(hokuto77)
rest安心、安息  still=always      urge=act as an impelling or
  prompting motive, stimulus, or force; exercise pressure
 or
  constraint (OED11a
はここを引用) 衝撃を与える =drive(
MS) /荒れ
 狂っている(
平井end>without end=endlessly, for ever (OED18
 はここを引用)  
deluge(ˈdɛljuːdʒ)=a great flood or overflowing
  water; fig. and transf.(OED 3
はここを引用)
feed=keep ( a reservoir, watercourse, etc) supplied; supply
  (a fire, etc) with fuel (OED7a
はここを引用)
burning=on fire, as a combustible;enveloped in flames (OED2はこ
 こを引用
)
 ever-burning=burning for ever   sulphur(ˈsʌlfə(r))=a
  greenish-yellow non-,metallic substance found abundantly in
  volcanic regions, and occurring free in nature as a *brittle
  crystalline solid, and widely distributed in combination n with
  metals and other substances. (OED1
はここを引用) 硫黄
*
brittle=hard but liable to break easily    unconsumed  i.e. not
  burned to ashes, without exhaustion

構文註釈②
    *a fiery deluge i.e. a deluge of fire  一面の火の海
     *a deluge tortureと同様に、urgesの主語

70~ Eternal Justice prepared Such place For those---の構文
   *Eternal Justice i.e. God     *such place i.e. regions of---

<参考②> 65~9に関して
 Euripides, Dante, Milton, Locke, Stevensonさらにそう遠くない
最近まで、希望はここにあるように hopecomes to all (mortals). であったことは事実であろう。関連して思い出されるのは、21世紀に入って、新しい学問体系として「希望学」が日本でも始められたことである。今の世の中は、個人としても集団としても「希望」を抱くことが極めて困難な時代になってしまった。この状況を打破して、従来のように希望を取り戻さなくては、個人としての幸せはつかめないし、人類の発展もないとして、そのための具体策を実践例で、検証をしながら学問的、科学的に体系化することの試みが始まった。これは今後活発になっていくとマスメディアをはじめ大方の予想がある。果たしてそうか。Dante神曲の地獄と同一の次元にあって、「希望」はないということであろう。(hokuto77)
<補足>
 *Euripides:古代アテネの悲劇詩人
 *The Troades was first acted in the year 415 BC.
 [The Troades means The Trojan women.]
 Judged by common standards, the Troades is far from a perfect play; it is scarcely even a good play. It is an intense study of one great situation, with little plot, little construction, little or no relief or variety. The only movement of the drama is a gradual extinguishing of all the familiar lights of human life, with, perhaps, at the end, a suggestion that in the utterness of night, when all fears of the possible worse thing are passed, there is in some sense peace and even glory. But the situation itself has at least this dramatic value, that it is different from what it seems.

  (by G. Murray, Professor of Greek in the University of Oxford)

 


For those rebellious; here their prison ordained1
In utter darkness, and their portion set,
As far removed from God and light of Heaven
As from the centre thrice to th' utmost pole.
Oh how unlike the place from whence they fell!   
75
There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelmed
With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire,
He soon discerns; and, weltering by his side,
One next himself in power, and next in crime,
Long after known in Palestine, and named     
80
構文註釈①
71~4 For those (who were) rebellious; (had) ordained---
  prison here In utter~ and (had) set their portion
As far
  removed from~ of Heaven As thrice from the centre thrice
  to the~ pole.
の構文

   *ordain A for B for---用に、のために *ordain + O 場所
  *as far removed from---as thrice from---thrice to~pole.
        
pole: Milton here measures the distance from
       Heaven to Hell as thrice the radium of the

     universe.
(JL) the universe=the new world [the
      earth
the new worldcenter
だと考えられていた]
75 Oh how unlike(it is)the place from whence they fell!
  
の構文  *from whence i.e. from which place  
         *the place---they fell i.e. Heaven (
天界)
76~8There He soon discerns the companions of his fall,
  o’erwhelmed With floods---fire;
の構文
  *discerns O+Cの意味合いも含める  C=o’erwhelmed
    *With floods and whirlwinds of---fire 共通関係
     (A+B)C  C= fire
                   To the lines
<補足①> 71~4
 *utter darkness cf. But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. (Mathew 8-12) /
And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
(
ibid 25-30)

語 釈
rebellious(rɪˈbɛljəs)謀反の、不従順な   ordain=of the Deity, fate, or
  supernatural power: “---” decree, predestine, destine (OED13)
  (
あらかじめ)定める    
utter i.e. utter and outer(JL)   *The
  Argument
 l.10 参照のこと   portion=that which is allotted to
  a person by providence; lot, destiny, fate (OED4
はここを引用)
set=establish定める    the centre=the earth itself, as the
  supposed center of the universe (OED2b
はここを引用)
utmost( ˈʌtməst) =outermost (OED)     pole=celestial pole (JL)
 天の極
  ・天国の縁と接する宇宙の最外部(
)     discern(視覚で)
  認める、見分ける  
companion=an associate in, a sharer or
  partaker of
 (OED1bはここを引用)
 fall(n)=dropping down from a
  high or relatively high position,
 by the force of gravity(OED1a
 
はここを引用)   
overwhelmʊˈhwɛlm) 度肝を抜く+苦しめる
whirlwind(ˈhwɜːlwɪnd)=something rushing impetuously like a
  whirlwind(OED2
はここを引用) 旋風 
tempestuous(tɛmˈpɛstjuːəs)
  =stormy, very rough and violent 
welter=turn or tumble about;
 lie and roll
 about (OED1aはここを引用) *浮きつ沈みつ(
平井
next=nearest to (a person or thing) in point of rank, condition,
  character, etc (OED15a
はここを引用) 
 crime=collective sing.
 wrong-doing, sin (OED2b
はここを引用)

name(v)=call by some name; in pa. pple. (OED1dはここを引用)
78~80 and (discerns) One, weltering by his side, (who is) next
  himself in power, and---in crime, Long after (being) known in
  ---, and named ~
の構文
   *weltering by his sideOneの補語的働き
     *long after
ずっと後になって
     *long after (being) known in---and named ~one next
     himself~
を補足的説明  ・ずーと後になって---なのだが

<補足②> 71~4
*---から遠く離れた、すなわち---から三倍離れた. 後半のAs thrice from the centreは具体的に説明している。地球から天の極[天国の縁]に至る距離の三倍ほど(MS)
*地球から天国の縁[天の極]までの距離を1、地球から地獄までの距離を2、従って天国の縁と地獄までは3となる。一対二の比例があり、一、二、三という数の関係は数霊術的には重要なものとされていた。(平井)


Beelzebub. To whom the Arch-Enemy,
And thence in Heaven called Satan, with bold words
Breaking the horrid silence, thus began:—
"If thou beest hebut O how fallen! how changed
From him! who, in the happy realms of light,   
85
Clothed with transcendent brightness, didst outshine
Myriads, though bright!—if he whom mutual league,
United thoughts and counsels, equal hope
And hazard in the glorious enterprise,
Joined with me once, now misery hath joined      90

構文註釈①
81~3 (being named) Beelzebub. To whom the Arch-Enemy,
  and thence called Satan in Heaven, thusbegan, Breaking
  the horrid silence, with bold words:
━の構文

   *(being) named ~  VC構文  *whom=Beelzebub
   *And thence called~ (神の)大敵だった故に---
    *thus began to whom
の語順    *breaking~ 付帯
  *(A,B)C 共通関係 C=with bold wordsとすると効果的である

84~7 “If thou beest he – but O how fallen (thou art)! How
  changed (thou are) from him!
who   didst outshine
  Myriads, though (they were) bright!, (being) Clothed with
  ---, in the---realms~,
の構文

    *If thou beest he ~ who---地獄に落とされ煉獄に苛まされ
   て、なんと無残な零落の変わり果てた姿かを
構文的に巧みに
   表現して見事である。

    *in the happy realms of light  i.e. in Heaven
  
*whoの先行詞はhe, him  *didst---強調
    
*though bright
Myriadsを修飾・彼等も輝いていたのだが

87~90 if (thou beest) he whom mutual league, united---and
  ~,equal hope And Hazard in the---enterprise, Joined with
   me once,(but) now misery hath joined (with me) ~
の構文

   *hope and hazard i.e. hazardous, risky hope
  ・構文が不明瞭なのは、尾羽うち枯らして凋落し果てた

<参考>Beelzebub ベルゼルブ関係  Matthew 12:22~28 より;

         
          <Beelzebub in Paradise Lost>

Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil,
blind and dumb: and he healed him, insomuch that the blind
and dumb both spake and saw. 
 *insomuch that--する程度
    まで

 
And all the people were amazed, and said, Is not this the
son of David? But when Pharisees heard it, they said, This
fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub the prince
of the devils.
*This fellow=Jesus *not by--によるのでなければ
And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them, Every
city or house divided against itself shall not stand:

  *
desolation廃墟                 To the lines

Beelzebub(biːˈɛlzɪbʌb) ベルゼルブ 魔王(Matt.12:24):悪魔;堕天使の
一人
(MiltonParadise Lost
Satanに次悪魔) ヘブライ語の原義では
  Lord or Baal of the flies(ペリシテ人の神 
2 Kings 1:2)(大英和)
BeelzebubThe Devil; a devil; also transf. =(Hebrew) ‘Lord of
  the Flies’(
JL)    the Arch-Enemy サタン、悪魔 (神の大敵)
thence=for that reason, therefore  Satan(ˈseɪtən) *Hebrew
  sa-tan=adversary, one who plot against another(OED)  
 
bold=(of words, actions, etc) showing or requiring courage;
  brave(OED)
  thus=ins this manner or way
begin=begin a speech, start speaking,speak(OED1cはここを引用)
beest<be=(b) In the 2nd sing., after if, though, etc., beest,
  properly an indicative form, was common in 16th and 17th c.,
  and isregularly used by Shakespeare (OED
はここを引用)

fall(v)=get into a low state, physically or morally; decline(OED
  7b
はここを引用)
 realm (rɛlm)=any sphere or region
  (Sometimes with suggestion of ruling power)(OED2b)

clothed with---で覆われた
transcendent(trɑːnˈsɛndənt)優越した、卓越した
utshine(ˈaʊtʃaɪn)=excel in shining or brightness; shine brighter
  than (OED1a
はここを引用) myriads(ˈmɪrɪəd)= absol. countless
 numbers of men, animals, or inanimate things (to be inferred
  from
the context) (OED3aはここを引) 
  mutual=qualifying
  personal designations of relationship, friendship, or hostility,
  to indicate that the relation or sentiment is mutual
mutual league 堅く契った同盟
  united=combined, connected,
 made one 
 
counsel= purpose, intention(OED)   
hazard
= venture   misery(ˈmɪzərɪ) 苦難
構文註釈②
  Beelzebubの
姿にSatanが動揺している心象であるが、同時に、意
  気消沈している相手の心をくすぐる巧妙
な話術が明瞭である。神への
  反逆の企てを
gloriousと表現するなど。
    *whom=
O   mutual league,---and hazard in ~=S    joined =V
  misery=
S  hath joined=V   *A(B+C) 共通関係 A=whom
    B=joined  C=joined

<参考> Beelzebubに関するOEDの説明;

 
  Beelzebub in Hell

   [---From the New Testament designation of Beelzebub as
'prince of demons, 'the word became at an
 early period one of
the popular names of the Devil. Milton used it as the name of
one of the fallen
angels.]  
*designation 名称、呼称

⇒ *divided against itself 分裂した、内輪もめした
And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how
shall then his kingdom stand?

 And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your
children cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges.

   *they=devils
 But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom
of God is come unto you.


In equal ruin; into what pit thou seest
From what height fallen: so much the stronger proved
He with his thunder: and till then who knew
The force of those dire arms? Yet not for those,
Nor what the potent Victor in his rage        
95
Can else inflict, do I repent, or change,
Though changed in outward lustre, that fixed mind,
And high disdain from sense of injured merit,
That with the Mightiest raised me to contend,
And to the fierce contentions brought along    
100

構文註釈①
(90)~4 (now joined with me) In equal ruin; thou seest (we
  have) fallen into what [deep] pit from what height; He
  proved so much the stronger with his thunder: and till
  then---arms?
の構文

   *二つのwhat 感嘆文を導く   *the stronger i.e. (of the
    two parties)   
    *He proved---stronger  SVC
  ・
He i.e. God      *so much the stronger i.e. so much
     stronger than us 
*with 道具、手段
   *till then who knew---?   *修辞疑問文 i.e. till then none
    knew---  
then=that time 戦闘で彼がそれを用いたとき
   ・
till---none ~ ---して初めて~
   *those dire arms  ・具体的には
Book VI 836 ten
     thousand thunders
とある。

94~7 yet do I repent or change, Though (I was) changed in
  outward lustre, that fixed mind, ~not for those, Nor (for)
  what else the---victor Can inflict in his rage,
の構文

   *those i.e. those dire arms     *for 理由 not, nor
    ---for ~
だからといって---しない *those i.e. those dire
     arms       *what else i.e. whatever else

  *the potent Victor i.e. God [SatanGodという表現をし
   ない。
 
Godに対するSatanの気持ちが表れている。対等
   又は、見縊っている気持ちの表明であろう。

語 釈
pit奈落、地獄  height=a high point or position (OED10はここを引用)
then=preceded by a preposition, as by, since, till, etc(=by, etc
 that time). (Cf. now 13.) (OED7a
はここを引用)

dire=dreadful, horrible, terrible   potent(ˈpəʊtənt)=possessed of
  great power; mighty (usually a poetic or rhetorical word, felt
  to be stronger than
powerful)    
rage=violent anger
inflict(ɪnˈflɪkt)(苦痛・打撃などを)与える    else ほかの  repent~
  for---
が理由で~を後悔する  lustre=brilliancy 光沢,輝き
merit=quality of deserving well(COD) (称賛に値する)価値→威信
 (
平井high=showing pride, self-exaltation, resentment, or the
  like; of words, actions, feelings, etc. (OED14)

disdain(n)=the feeling entertained towards that which one thinks
  unworthy of notice or beneath one's dignity; scorn, contempt
  (OED1a
はここを引用)  [
high disdain憤慨の念に基づいて相手を軽蔑
 する心
]     
mightiest<mighty=powerful, potent, strong
raise=stir up, incite, instigate (one or more persons) to do
  something or to some feeling(OED5c
はここを引用) するように奮
 起させる 
contend with--=fight with-- <contention 争い
構文註釈②
97~100
(not---nor---repent or change, from sense of (my) merit
  (being) injured, that fixed mind), And
 high disdain---That
  raised me to contend with the Mightiest, And brought along to
  the fierce contentions
 ~ の構文

   *change mind and disdain V+O and O
    *from sense of (my) merit (being) injured i.e. because I felt
    that my merit was injured
  not, nor---from ~  ~だから
   といって
---しない     *that---That raised~ (=which)
   thatは先行詞をはっきりさせる(例の)    *A(B+C) 共通関係
    
A=that  *that fixed mind 例の不動心 (具体的には
Book V
    
668~71) (配下の全軍勢と共に本拠地を引き揚げて、王座にある
   神に徹底して逆らうとの決意
)     *the Mightiest i.e. God
  
*bring A along to A
B へ連れて来る
       To the lines

Innumerable force of Spirits armed,
That durst dislike his reign, and, me preferring,
His utmost power with adverse power opposed

In dubious battle on the plains of Heaven,       
104
And shook his throne. What though the field be lost?
All is not lost—the unconquerable will,
And study of revenge, immortal hate,
And courage never to submit or yield:
And what is else not to be overcome?
That glory never shall his wrath or might       110
構文註釈①
(100)~4
(And brought along to the fierce contention)
  Innumerable force of armed Spirits That dust dislike his
   reign and preferring me, opposed His Utmost power with
  adverse power In---battle on the---
Heaven And shook his
  throne.
の構文

   *brought along innumerable---Spirits that~ and opposed
   ---throne to the fierce contention
の構造
  *That i.e. who 先行詞はSpirits      *that dust---and
     opposed~ and shook   *his reign i.e. the reign by God
    
*preferring me=liking me better and putting me forward
     (
JL) ・私を首領と仰ぐ(平井)
105 What though the field be lost?=what happens or would
  happen on the supposition that the field be
 lost?
   (Nearly=what if~ ?,but implying some opposition between
  the circumstance mentioned
 and the possible one implied)
 
  cf. What if?=What does it matter?=What if it is so?

  What else?  What and what~ ? What of~ ?  What then?

106~8 All is not lost the---will, And study of---,
  immortal---, And courage never to~ :
   *All--not 部分否定 ・━以下具体的にまだ失われていない物を
   列挙する
    *study ・この語はLatin stadium (=zeal,
     painstaking, application)
に由来。
    *study of revenge i.e. zeal to achieve revenge

109 what else is not to be overcome?  修辞疑問文
 
 *構文上の解釈が微妙に分かれる:
     =What else does “not being overcome” mean? (
JL)
     ②敗北を喫しないために、これ以外に何が必要だというのか
                    To the lines 
  

語 釈
force=a body of armed men, an army 軍勢         Spirits 天使
durst<dare     reign=royal power or rule統治、支配      utmost
  (
ˈʌtməʊst)=that is of the greatest or highest degree; of the
  largest amount,
 number, etc; extreme(OEDはここを引用)最大の
prefer=promote (to a position or office or dignity)
adverse(ˈædvɜːs)=acting against or in opposition to, opposing
  contrary, antagonistic, actively hostile. const. to (OED1
はここ
 を引用
) 敵対する    
dubious (ˈdjuːbɪəs)=of uncertain issue or
  result(OED1b
はここを引用)     
 throne 王座    field=a battle;
  now rare exc. in such phrases as a hard-fought field,hard-won
  field. a single field: a single combat. Also to fight, †give, lose,
  †make, win (a, the) field. Hence,†Victory, esp. in to get, have
  the field (OED8a
はここを引用)  
lose the field  i.e. lose the
  battle
       
all=as sing=everything(OED8aはここを引用)
unconquerable=of the mind, feelings,etc, with similar implication
  (OED1b
はここを引用)<not conquered    
will=the power or
  capacity of willing; that faculty
or function which is directed
  to conscious and intentional action; power of choice in regard
  to
action(OED6aはここを引用)    
       immortal=everlasting
courage=that quality which shows itself in facing danger without
  fear or shrinking; bravery, boldness, valor(OED4
はここを引用)
submit=without const.: yield, surrender, be submissive(OED1c
 ここを引用
)
構文註釈②
   (平井)=what else is needed (in order) not to be
         overcome?
   ③打ち負かされない物が他にあるのか いや、これらほど強いもの
   は外にない
(
MS)これだけあれば十分ではないか
     
will, study, courageが残っているから、神に負けるというこ
    とはないという趣旨

110~ his wrath or might shall never~ That glory from me. の構文
      *shall never 話者の強い予言的な意志
      *
that glory の解釈が分かれる:
     ①the glory of conquering what is not lost in me
        余がまだ失っていない物を征服するという栄光→私を完全に征
     服するという栄光
(MS,平井)
      
that=my not being overcomeも理論的に可能であるが
     少々うっとうしい。

Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace
With suppliant knee, and deify his power2
Who, from the terror of this arm, so late3
Doubted his empire—that were low indeed;
That were an ignominy and shame beneath   
115
This downfall; since, by fate, the strength of Gods,
And this empyreal substance, cannot fail;
Since, through experience of this great event,
In arms not worse, in foresight much advanced,
We may with more successful hope resolve    
120
構文註釈①
(110)~14 (never Extort---from me.) To bow and sure for~
  With---and deify his---Who, from the terror
 of this arm,
  so late Doubted---
that were low indeed; の構文

   *bow, sure, deifyの不定詞は仮定を含む用法. ・若しも---
   れば
 cf. It would take a lot of time and trouble to
      dissuade him from giving up his job.

  *whoの先行詞は
his (God’s)  *from 原因(doubt---from
      ~)
   *this arm Satanの腕っ節の強さ、腕力→膂力
   (
平井 *so latedoubtedを修飾 「ほんの少し前」
   *thatbow, sure, deifyの不定詞を受ける
 
  *were = would be        *lowは神の支配力が低下

115~7 That were an ignominy---shame beneath This
  downfall; since, by fate, the strength of Gods,
And this
  empyreal substances, cannot fail;
の構文

   *That 114行のthatの繰り返し   *were= would be
  *beneath This downfall beneaththis downfallは同格的
   働き
のように零落した身分、権威の低下
 
*since ---=seeing that---理由  *by fate 運命によって
  
Satanは「運命」が神の上に立つ最高のものと考えていると
   いうのが定説で
ある。
  *Gods
Satanと仲間のangelsを神相当だとの思い上がりの表
   現であろう。
   *this empyreal substances 天来の霊質
    (
平井)=fiery essence(MS) ・MSの註は語源をG.fiery
      から取ったものだが
fiery=of persons, their actions and
    attributes: ardent, eager, fierce, spirited
(OED5a)の語
   義以外には適切なものが考えにくい。文脈にそぐわない感は
   否めない。

118~20 Since, through---this great event, In arms
  (which will be) not worse (than this time),

語 釈
extort(ɛkˈstɔːt)= obtain by force, threats, or other unfair
  means(COD)  
bow(v)(baʊ)=bend the body, knee, or head, in
 token of reverence, respect, or submission; make obeisance
  (emphasized by down: const. to, before) (OED6
はここを引用)
sue for=make one’s petition to a person for a thing; plead,
  appeal (OED22a
はここを引用) を乞う         
  grace=mercy,
  clemency; hence, pardon or forgiveness. now
rare or arch.
  (OED15a
はここを引用)
  suppliant(adj.)(ˈsʌplɪənt)= expressing
  or involving supplication (OED Bb
はここを引用) 嘆願する
deify(v)(ˈdiːɪfaɪ)=treat as a god, in word or action 神として崇め
 奉る
    
arm=fig. might, power, authority (OED3a)      late=
  recently, lately
 
doubt(v)=fear for(JL)=have suspicions about
 
危ぶむ  
empire(ˈɛmpaɪə)=transf. and fig. paramount influence,
  absolute sway, supreme command or control
preme command
  or control(OED2
はここを引用
)     ignominy(ˈɪgnəmɪnɪ)=dishonor,
  disgrace
不名誉  
beneath=fig. lower in the scale of being,
  station, rank, excellence, or dignity. Now commonly below
  (OED6
はここを引用)  
downfall=fall from high estate, ruin (the
 current use)(OED3
はここを引用)  
Gods=deities古代ギリシャ人達
 が抱いていた神々と同じ

empyreal(ɛmˈpɪrɪəl)=of or pertaining to the
empyrean or highest heaven. Also fig. (OED1a)
=of the highest Heaven(
JL)[f. Med.L.empyreus,
empyræus, f. Gr.
µπύρ-ος
fiery) + -al1. ]
(OED)
   substance=essential nature, essence
fail=die out, pass away   can=be able; have
the power, ability or capacity. (said of physical
as well as mental, and of natural as well as
acquired ability;=L. posse, F. pouvoir.) (OED4a
はここを引用) 
cannot~起こりえない
foresight=the action of looking forward
 
 empyreal substances
構文註釈②
 in foresight (which will be) much advance (than this
  time), with more successful hope We may resolve ~
の構文

   *since 理由  *through~ =by means of ~
    *this great event
SatamGodに戦いを挑んで地獄に落とされた
  こと 
*in arms~, in foresight---
Satanの希望的観測
   *with more successful hope i.e. with more hope of success
   ・through~, in arms~, in foresight~, with~we may
      resolve ~
を修飾する副詞句
          To the lines

To wage by force or guile eternal war,
Irreconcilable to our grand Foe,
Who now triumphs, and in the excess of joy
Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven."
So spake th' apostate Angel, though in pain,   
125
Vaunting aloud, but racked with deep despair;
And him thus answered soon his bold compeer: —
"O Prince, O Chief of many throned Powers
That led th' embattled Seraphim to war
Under thy conduct, and, in dreadful deeds       130
構文註釈①

(120)~24 (---may resolve) To wage by force or guile war,
   (which is) Irreconcilable to our grand Foe, Who now
   triumphs, and in the excess---(by) Sole reigning holds
   the---Heaven.”
の構文

   *Who now triumphs, and---holds---の構造   *wage war
     to---
   *our grand Foe i.e.
God
   *in the excess of
joy 過剰な喜びに浸り
  *
123 scansion, pentameter (参考例):

      Who now triumphs and in the excess of joy
       
  弱 強/  弱強/       弱/    強/  
  *(by) Sole reigning  i.e. reigning by himself 単独支配しな
  がら

125~7
So spake the apostate Angel, though(he was)in pain,
   Vaunting---, but (being) racked with
~ despair; And soon
  his bold compeer thus answered him:
の構文

   *spake=spoke    *the apostate Angel i.e. Satan
    *his bold compeer i.e.
Beelzebub      
128 O Prince, O Chief of many throned Powers
   
*Satan
への呼びかけ   *throned Powers=higher angels in
    general (
MS)
129~30That led the embattled---to war Under thy conduct,
   and, ~ in dreadful deeds
の構文
   *Thatの先行詞は many throned Powers (Chief を先行詞に
  しないこと
:Under thy conduct からそうなる)(
MS)とある。
しかしunder thy conductSatan自らの陣頭指揮を意味し、Chief自身がin dreadful deedsで恐れを知らずに働いた(131~)と解釈可能で、many throned Powers の中にembattled Seraphimが含まれないとは考えられずPowers が同列以上の身分のSeraphimを戦
<参考資料①>  Comments on the character of Beelzebub in Paradise Lost 欧米の評論家のBeelzebub観をランダムに列挙して見ました。参考になることを願っています。
*Beelzebub's first speech [lines 128 - 155] proves that he knows better than to oppose directly his leader and thwart his will. He knows that the best way to rule a bold chief is by way of persuasion. He humours Satan and seems at first to agree with him. But then with his wise foresight Beelzebubcomes forward with shrewd hunts of doubt about the future. His character, as revealed in the speech, is one of Milton's subtlest. He is not a base coward like Belial. Nor has he the rash and unthinking courage of Moloch. He is rather the wise, practical councilor who has the good of his chief at his heart. Beelzebub also knows that a great disaster has overwhelmed them. We may note in this connection that most unlike Satan, he does not minimize the overthrow and defeat of the angels.
*Beelzebub highly praises Satan as their leader.
*
Satan and Beelzebub are the mightiest of the rebel angels that fell from Heaven. They tower above the rest. Satan is the king of the fallen angels; Beelzebub is their Deputy. In physical strength and splendour Beelzebub is Satan's inferior. Satan is the first of the fallen angels to recover from the stupor, Beelzebub is the second. Satan is also prouder and more courageous than Beelzebub. Even after the fall from Heaven Satan meditates revenge, whereas
     

語 釈
wage=carry on (war, a contest)(OED10aはここを引用) (戦争,
 い
)をする  
force=military strengthor power      guile(gaɪl)=
  deceit, treachery
奸策、詭計          
grand=great
triumph(v)(traɪˈəmf)=celebrate a Roman triumph(OED1)
  prevail(OED2), exult(OED4)勝ち誇る
 *
meterの関係でアクセントは第一から第二音節umphuに移る(MS)
sole(adj.)=(of things, rights, duties, etc): pertaining or due to,
  possessed or exercised by, vested in, etc., one person or
  corporate body to the exclusion of all others; exclusive.
  similarly of actions (OED7)    
tyranny (ˈtɪrənɪ)=oppressive
  exercise of power; unjustly severe use of one's authority
専制
 的支配
,統治     
apostateˈpɒstət)=unfaithful to religious
  principles of creed; rebellious(OED B1
はここを引用)背教した

angel=one of the fallen or rebellious spirits, said to have been
  formerly angels of God (OED1b
はここを引)   
vaunt(vɔːnt)=
  boast
自慢する  
racked 苦しめられて  compeer(kəmˈpɪə(r))=
  one of equal rank or standing; companion
同僚、仲間
throned=seated on or as on a throne 
  throned powers=higher
  angels in general(MS)
   soon=without delay, forthwith
embattled(ɛmˈbæt(ə)ld)戦列を敷いた       seraphim(ˈsɛrəfɪm)
  <seraph
熾天使(天使の9階級中第一天使
  conduct(n)
  (
ˈkɒndəkt)=the leading or commanding of an army, a vessel,
  etc; leadership, command; management;of the army, etc
  (OED5)
   dreadful=dangerous, perilous. Obs. (OED2b)
deed=an act of bravery, skill, etc.; a feat; esp. in deed of arms,
  and the like(OED1b)

構文註釈②
いに赴かせたとい
のはしっくりこない。Thatの先行詞はChiefとする方が筋も通ると思われる。Beelzebubの作品内での性格の理解にも影響する。Thatの先行詞をPowersだとして、Satanの次に位するBeelzebubが、[自分もthorned Powersの一人であることから、under thy conductの表現でSatanを賞賛しておいて、一方で、Beelzebub自身の武勲もSatanに伝えてた]とする解釈は、John Leonard氏の註では,Richardson1734に注解しているとある。この解釈では、Beelzebubの狡賢さ、狡猾さを暗示することになる。彼の性格は果たしてそうなのか。関係代名詞の先行詞が数語先に離れるとか、後ろにまわるとかは英文では自在な面がある。Powers that V~だから先行詞即Powersと限定できないのは自明なことである。Beelzebubの性格等に関して<参考>を提供しておきます。 *led>lead A to B    *dreadful deeds 危険を伴う勇敢な働
<参考資料②> 
ダブりがあればご寛大に           To the lines
Beelzebub is obviously despaired.
*Unlike Satan, Beelzebub doesn’t seem to have designs to move up (or down) the ladder. He seems content to be second in command.
*
Beelzebub relies totally on Satan for what he thinks and does. Later, Satan uses Beelzebub as a plant to get hell's council of fallen angels to do what he wants themto do.
*Beelzebub followed Satan, next in the act of rebellion. Next to Satan, Beelzebub shared the greatest responsibility for the rebellion against god and overthrow of the angels.
*He seems to be content to copy the behavior of Satan.  In Hell, he remains Satan’s chief follower. Beelzebub is also a bold leader of the rebel angels. Above all, he is a wise and sagacious counselor of Satan an able minister who has always his master's interest at heart. He is therefore a master of diplomacy and loyal to Satan, as he effectively manipulates the other fallen angels into accepting Satan's plan for gaining revenge against God. Beelzebub is happy to be silent and to let others voice their opinions.
*Satan, however, has not Beelzebub's wisdom and practical sense. Beelzebub at once points out that the immortality of the rebel angels also means eternal torture for them. Beelzebub shrewdly observes that their very opposition may be turned by god into the furtherance of his own glory. The proper place for the wise and sagacious Beelzebub is the council chamber.

Fearless, endangered Heaven's perpetual King,
And put to proof his high supremacy,
Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or fate
Too well I see and rue the dire event
That, with sad overthrow and foul defeat,     
135
Hath lost us Heaven, and all this mighty host
In horrible destruction laid thus low,
As far as Gods and heavenly Essences
Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains
Invincible, and vigour soon returns,          
 140
構文註釈①

131~33 (being) Fearless in dreadful deeds, endangered---
  perpetual King, And put his high supremacy to proof,
 Whether(it is)upheld by---, or ~, or---!の構文

*Fearless in---deeds はendangered, putを修飾する副詞句 Satanの活躍を表現と解釈 (hokuto77)
  *Heaven’s perpetual King i.e. God   *(it is) it=his high
   supremacy
  *whether A or B or Cの節は、副詞節ではなく
  名詞節で意味上
put to proofの目的語の働きをしている。

134~7 Too well I see and rue the dire event That, with---
  defeat, Hath lost---and laid all this mighty host
thus low
 in horrible Destruction
の構文

   *共通関係 (V + V)O  O=the dire event, That--
   ②
A(B+C) A=with原因 lostを修飾する副詞句
  *too well I see --をいやというほど見た   too=to a
    lamentable, reprehensible, painful, or intolerable

    extent (OED2c)     *thatの先行詞はthe dire event
     ・
lost<lose O+O無生物主語

138~9 As far as Gods and---Essences Can perish:の構文
  *この副詞節は
137 laid---In horrible destructionを修飾
   *as far as ---~するまでに(程度) ・この程度までの破壊
   が限界だとの暗示をしている表現

語 釈
fearless=unaffected by fear; bold         endanger=expose---to
  danger, cause danger to---
perpetual=lasting or destined to
  last forever; eternal    
proof=test, trial; examination試験、吟味
put--to proof 吟味する   supremacy(s(j)uːˈprɛməsɪ)最高権、至上権
uphold=support, maintain      too=more than enough to a
  lamentable, painful extent]
 rue(ruː)=regard or think of--with
  sorrow or regret; wish that (something) had never taken place
dire=mournful 悲惨な  event=the outcome, issue;a consequence,
  a result(OED)
  
sad=causing sorrow; distressing, calamitous,
  lamentable (OED5f
はここを引用)  
  overthrow(n)(ˈəʊvəθrəʊ)=
  defeat; ruin     
foul 無残な    defeat=in a military contest or
  fight.
 (The usual term from c 1650) (OED3aはここを引用)
lose=cause (a person) the loss of (will lose you your job)
  (POD10)  
  host=an army 
destruction=the fact, condition, or
  state of being destroyed; ruin(OED2
はここを引用) 
   laid<lay
low=lay low: lay flat; bring to the ground, overthrow in fight,
 stretch lifeless (OED17a
はここを引用)    
    essence=concr.
  something that is; an existence, entity. now restricted to
  
spiritual or immaterial entities. (OED2a
はここを引用)
invincible=that cannot be overcome

構文註釈②
 *Heavenly Essences=heavenly existences (angel等の天人の意味)   *can 可能性     *perish=lose its life, cease to exist (OED1a)
 ・
incur spiritual death(OED1b)を含んでいると註をているのは(
JL)  incur=bring~ on oneself(POD)
  *Gods  Satan の「神」は唯一神のGodではない。

139~40 for the mind and spirit remains Invincible, and vigour
  soon returns, ~
の構文
  *共通関係 A(B+C) A=the ここでは二つを一つの概念を構成と見な
 している 
*remain + C    *for以下はAs far as Gods---perish
 を修飾する理由の副詞節
・というのは~だから
  To the lines

Though all our glory extinct, and happy state
Here swallowed up in endless misery.
But what if he our Conqueror (whom I now
Of force believe almighty, since no less         
144
Than such could have o'erpowered such force as ours)
Have left us this our spirit and strength entire,
Strongly to suffer and support our pains,
That we may so suffice his vengeful ire,
Or do him mightier service as his thralls
By right of war, whate'er his business be, ~      150

構文註釈①
141~2 Though all our glory (may be) extinct, and happy
  state (may be) Here swallowed up in endless
misery.の構文
  *Though i.e. Even though    *Here i.e. down here in the
      Hell
   *happy state(我々が)天上にいた頃の幸せな境遇
     *be swallowed up in~ に没頭する、呑み込まれて~に変わる
   (良い事例にも、悪い場合にも)

143~6 But what if He our Conqueror (whom I now Of force
  believe---, since no less Than such could
have~ such
  force as ours) Have left (for) us this our spirit and
  strength entire,
の構文

   *what if SV ~? 我々の征服者彼が---をしたとなれば、どうい
   うことだろうか。
 *of force=unavoidably(
MS)余儀なく、
   やむを得ず    
*now of forceSVに割り込み
   *almighty ・武力に関して全能だという意味である(平井)      *since=seeing that *suchalmightyを指す*such--as ~
   *no less than suchもしalmightyでなければ could have
    overpowered
の主語で仮定を含む 「我らほどの武力に打ち
   勝つなどは、全能でなけれ到底なし得なかっただろう」

   *if He---Have left(for)us this---entire  *leave OCの構文
    C=entire
「我々に~の状態で残してくれた」
        this our spirit and strengththis spirit and strength
     of ours
thisspirit and strengthを1概念と考えた表現