Paradise Lost

 The Argument of Paradise Lost
 Part two (Book VII-Book XII)


CONTENTS

To part one
Book VII      Book VIII
  Book IX      Book X
   Book XI      Book XII
   参考 I       参考 II
 感想


























Book VII


 Raphael at the request of Adam relates how and wherefore this world was first created; that God, after the expelling of Satan and his angels out of heaven, declared his pleasure to create another world and other creatures to dwell therein; sends his Son with glory and attendance of angels to perform the work of creation in six days: the angels celebrate with hymns the performance thereof, and his re-ascension into heaven.


Notes by Kumano and M. Shigeno:
   wherefore=for what reason     expel=force somebody to leave a country
   pleasure=a person’s will or desire     declare=say something publicly     dwell=live, reside
   re-ascension<reascend=ascend again=go up again

     cf. the Ascension=the ascent of Christ into heaven on the fortieth day after the Resurrection

 <構文解説>

 *that God, ---how and wherefore this ---の具体的な説明

 *God --- declared ---; sends --- 

 
*(in order) to perform the ---
































Book VIII

Adam inquires concerning celestial motions, is doubtfully answered, and exhorted to search rather things more worthy of knowledge: Adam assents, and still desirous to detain Raphael, relates to him what he remembered since his own creation, his placing in Paradise, his talk with God concerning solitude and fit society, his first meeting and nuptials with Eve, his discourse with the angel thereupon; who after admonitions repeated departs.

  Notes by Kumano and M. Shigeno:
  concerning=about, regarding     celestial motion=the process of moving by the stars, etc.
  exhorted to do~=advised strongly to do~       search=examine closely    assent=agree to a suggestion
  desirous to do=hoping to do     detain=prevent --- from going away
  solitude=the state of being alone     fit=suitable      society=compainionship
  fit society 自分にふさわしい相手  nuptials=a wedding    thereupon=on that
  admonition=a warning to somebody about his behavior
  *is doubtfully answered ミルトンはコペルニクスの地動説をすでに知っているが、自分の考えを曖昧にしていた。
 作品では、天体の動きなどは天動説で説明してある。

  *his placing in Paradise i.e. his being placed in Paradise     *after admonitions ( having been) repeated



































Book IX

 (この章は、Eve が Satan から陥れられる具体的な場面で、通俗的な興味において、この叙事詩の中心の一つで
 ある。現代の小説作法などからすると心理的な掘り下げが物足りない気もするが、それが目的ではなく、あくまでも、
 通過点ということであろうか。

 Satan having compassed the earth, with meditated guile returns as mist by night into Paradise, enters into the serpent sleeping. Adam and Eve in the morning go forth to their labors, which Eve proposes to divide in several places, each laboring apart: Adam consents not, alleging the danger, lest that enemy, of whom they were forewarned, should attempt her found alone:


 
compass=go round      meditate=plan mentally; design     guile=deceit     allege=say strongly     forewarn=warn
 beforehand    attempt=entice, tempt
 <構文解説>
  *returns as mist by night into Paradise 夜になって、霧に化けて---
  *the serpent (which is) sleeping (Satanはあらゆる物姿を変えることが出来、どこにでも入り込むことが出来る)

   *each laboring apart 付帯(二人がそれぞれ離れて働く)

   *the danger, lest --- should~  ---ではないかとの危険

   *attempt her found alone i.e. try to tempt her when she is found alone  

Eve loath to be thought not circumspect or firm enough, urges her going apart, the rather desirous to make trial of her strength; Adam at last yields: the Serpent finds her alone; his subtle approach, first gazing, then speaking, with much flattery extolling Eve above all other creatures.

   loath to do---=unwilling to do---     circumspect=cautious
   firm=strong and in control     yield=give up, surrender
  the Serpent i.e. Satan        extol=praise very much
  *Eve, (who is) loath to be thought---       *or (not) firm enough
  *his subtle approach (being described in the Book IX),
  *with much flattery extolling---大いにゴマをすって---だとほめ上げる

Eve wondering to hear the Serpent speak, asks how he attained to human speech and such understanding not till now; the Serpent answers, that by tasting of a certain tree in the garden he attained both to speech and reason, till then void of both:

   
wondering=filled with great surprise       attain to--- =arrive at--- by conscious effort
  
void of ---=completely lacking --- 
    *not till now   i.e. which has not been known till now

 

 Eve requires him to bring her to that tree, and finds it to be the Tree of Knowledge forbidden: the Serpent now grown bolder, with many wiles and arguments induces her at length to eat; she pleased with the taste deliberates a while whether to impart thereof to Adam or not, at last brings him of the fruit, relates what persuaded her to eat thereof:

 wile=trick    argument=a reason that somebody uses to show that something is true or correct
 induce=persuade somebody to do something      deliberate=think very carefully about something
 impart=give a share of (a thing)
 *she pleased with the taste   i.e. she, (being) pleased with the taste

 *thereof= of that   that=禁断の木の実を食べたこと(木の実そのものではない)

Adam at first amazed, but perceiving her lost, resolves through vehemence of love to perish with her; and extenuating the trespass, eats also of the fruit: the effects thereof in them both; they seek to cover their nakedness; then fall to variance and accusation of one another.

 
amaze=surprise greatly     vehemence=strong feeling     perish=die
 
extenuate=lessen the seeming seriousness of (guilt or an offence) by reference to some

 mitigating factor    trespass=a sin or offence    seek to do=try to do
  nakedness<naked=not wearing any clothes; nude     fall to --- =begin ---
  variance=difference of opinion, disagreement     accusation<accuse=say that someday is guilty of something
 *Adam --- (being)amazed, but perceiving --- resolves --- to perish--- eats---:の構文
 *the effects thereof in them both (are described in the Book IX)





































   Book X

Man’s transgression known, the guardian angels forsake Paradise, and return up to heaven to approve their vigilance, and are approved, God declaring that the entrance of Satan could not be by them prevented. He sends his Son to judge the transgressors, who descends and gives sentence accordingly; then in pity clothes them both, and re-ascends.

  
transgression<transgress     guardian=defender, protector     approve=prove(MS)
  approved=received with favor(MS.    vigilance<vigilant=very careful to notice any     signs of danger or trouble
  judge 裁く   sentence 判決     accordingly=appropriately 相応に    clothe(verb)=put clothes on
 <構文解説>
  *The transgressors  i.e. Adam and Eve

 Sin and Death, sitting till then at the gates of hell, by wondrous sympathy feeling the success of Satan in this new world, and the sin by man there committed, resolve to sit no longer confined in hell, but to follow Satan their sire up to the place of man: to make the way easier from hell to this world to and fro, they pave a broad highway or bridge over chaos, according to the track that Satan first made; then preparing for earth, they meet him proud of his success returning to hell; their mutual gratulation.

 Sin’ is Satan’s daughter. Satan and Death are Sin’s parents.
  sympathy=a sort of physical attraction at a distance(MS)     wondrous=inspiring wonder
  feel=be aware of (something happening) through physical sensation
  sire=father     to and fro=backwards and forwards; repeatedly
  between the same points     way=a road, path for passing along
  track=a rough path beaten by use    pave i.e. construct with asphalt, stone, etc.      gratulation=congratulation
  *Sin and Death --- resolve to sit ---     *feeling the success of --- , and the sin ---
 *and the sin by man there committed  i.e. and feeling the sin (which had been) committed there by man
   the sin i.e. Both Adam and Eve ate fruits of the forbidden tree, the Tree of Knowledge.
  *no longer --- but  cf. not A but B      *Satan their sire 同格
  *(in order) to make the way easier       *preparing for (going to) earth
  *they meet him (who is) proud of his success ---

  Satan arrives at Pandemonium, in full assembly relates with boasting his success against man; instead of applause is entertained with a general hiss by all his audience, transformed with himself also suddenly into serpents, according to his doom given in Paradise; then deluded with a show of the Forbidden Tree springing up before them, they greedily reaching to take of the fruit, chew dust and bitter ashes.

  assembly=the meeting together of a group of people for a particular purpose
  boasting=the act of boasting(boast=talk with too much pride about one’s achievements
 be entertained with --- =be amused by ---(often ironically)  ---を浴びる
  general=widespread     hiss=a sound like a long ‘s’ , used to show disapproval of somebody
  transform=change the form of something thoroughly or dramatically     doom=fate, destiny (usually ‘evil’ )
 delude=deceive or mislead      show=the state of being shown(見せかけで本物ではない)
 reach =stretch one’s hand to do ----      *all his audience, (who are) transformed --- into ---
 *with himself
  Satanと共に     *then (being) deluded

 The proceedings of Sin and Death; God foretells the final victory of his Son over them, and the renewing of all things; but for the present commands his angels to make several alterations in the heavens and elements. Adam more and more perceiving his fallen condition, heavily bewails, rejects the condolement of Eve;

 proceedings=a series of actions

 foretell=tell of (an events etc.) before it takes place

 for the present=just now/as far as the present is concerned  

 command=give formal order to     alteration=change

 The heavens=the sky as the abode of the sun, moon, and stars and regarded(i.e. seen) from earth.(COD 8th Edition).
  Heaven=habitation of God and his angels, usually placed beyond sky. (COD 4th
  Edition)     fallen 堕落した (神の掟を破ったこと)
  bewail=greatly regret      condolement=an expression of sympathy with anyone in his     suffering or loss(OED 2b)
  *The proceedings of Sin and Death (are described in the Book X)

she persists and at length appeases him: then to evade the curse likely to fall on their offspring, proposes to Adam violent ways which he approves not, but conceiving better hope, puts her in mind of the late promise made them, that her seed should be revenged on the Serpent, and exhorts her with him to seek peace of the offended Deity, by repentance and supplication.

persist=continue firmly (her codolement)

at length=at last    appease=make calm or quiet

evade=avoid, escape from---, esp. by trickery etc.God  

  curse=a thing that causes evil or harm      offspring=descendants  cf. ancestors
  violent ways  この場合は、Eveが自殺すること(MS)       approve=think that something is good, acceptable
 conceive=imagine      put --- in mind of--- =make --- remember--- =remind --- of---     late=of recent date
 seed=offspring, descendants     be revenged on---
に復讐する
 exhort --- to do =advise strongly or earnestly --- to do       seek=try to obtain something
  peace=mental calm      offended=displeased, angered      the Deity=the Creator, God
  supplication=the act of asking for something with a very humble request or prayer
  *which he approves --- puts --- exhorts ---         *curse (which is) likely to fall
  *the late promise (which was) made (to) them  (S promise O+O) 与える約束をする
  
*the late promise --- that--- 同格


































Book XI

 The Son of God presents to his Father the prayers of our first parents now repenting, and intercedes for them: God accepts them, but declares that they must no longer abide in Paradise; sends Michael with a band of Cherubim to dispossess them; but first to reveal to Adam future things: Michael’s coming down.

 present=offer or give as a gift (to a person)    repent=feel deep sorrow about one’s actions etc.
 intercede=speak to somebody to persuade him to show pity on somebody else 
 abide=stay or live  band=a group of people     cherubim<cherub 智天使(天使の階級の第二位)
 dispossess=banish, expel(OED)(=order somebody to leave a place, esp. a country, as a punishment)
  reveal=display or show

 *God accepts --- declares --- sends --- (in order) to dispossess --- but first to reveal ---
 *Michael’ coming down (on Paradise)

Adam shows to Eve certain ominous signs; he discerns Michael’s approach, goes out to meet him: the angel denounces their departure. Eve’s lamentation. Adam pleads, but submits: the angel leads him up to a high hill, sets before him in vision what shall happen till the Flood.

  ominous=suggesting that something bad is going to happen in the future
  discern --- =make out --- by gazing    denounce=proclaim, announce, declare(OED)
  departure<depart=go away, leave     lamentation=an expression of great sadness or disappointmen
  plead=make an earnest appeal to, ask somebody for something in a very strong and serious way
  submit=give way, yield  
    set --- in vision  i.e. let --- be shown
  the Flood=Noah’s Flood, that in Genesis (COD 4th Edition)
  *Eve’s lamentation. (is described in the Book XI)
  *what shall happen till the Flood.   神が自分で創った人間達が如何に神の思惑とはずれた考え、行動をするかを
  Adamに見せる。(Adam
にとっては、残酷なことで自分の犯した罪の大きさに耐えられないところであるが。
 以下少々脱線してみましょう。


   皆さんご存知の ノアの方舟 は、旧約聖書 Genesis 6-9 に詳しく載られていますが、詳細は、Noah’s Ark
  Wikipedia
を入力、クリックすれば入手できます。その一部を紹介しておきます。

The best-known version of the Jewish flood-story is that in the Book of Genesis (Genesis 6-9), but “–--“.
 The record in the book of Genesis
says, "Then the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And the Lord was sorry that He had made man on the earth, and was grieved in His heart. So the Lord said, 'I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the land, from man to animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky; for I  am grieved that I have made them.' “---”.
 God selects
Noah who "found favor in the eyes of the Lord, and commands him to build an ark. God instructed the ark's construction to be three hundred cubits (450 feet/137 m) long, fifty cubits (75 feet/23 m) wide, and thirty cubits (45 feet/14 m) high.”---”. Then God commanded Noah to put one pair of unclean animals and seven pairs of clean animals. After Noah builds the ark, "all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened" by God. It rains for 40 days. "The water prevailed upon the earth one hundred and fifty days." The water recedes for 150 days. On the seventeenth day of the  seventh month, the ark rests upon the mountains of Ararat. After 40 days on the mountain, Noah opens up  the ark. "Then God spoke to Noah, saying, 'Go out of the ark, you and your wife and your sons and your sons' wives with you'."
Everyone and every animal exits the ark to fruitfully repopulate the Earth.
       (Clored red by hokuto77)



A painting by American Edward Hicks (1780-1849),<BR>
showing the animals boarding Noah‘s Ark two by two

































Book XII

 The angel Michael continues from the Flood to relate what shall succeed; then, in the mention of Abraham, comes by degrees to explain, who that Seed of the Woman shall be, which was promised Adam and Eve in the Fall; his Incarnation, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension; the state of the Church till his second coming.

 succeed=come next after  [succession - successive]     in the mention of --- i.e. when he talks about ---
  by degrees=slowly and gradually    the Woman i.e. the Virgin Mary
  Incarnation=the embodiment of God the Son in human flesh as Jesus Christ
  Resurrection=Christ’s rising from the dead
  Ascension=the ascent of Christ into heaven on the fortieth day after the Resurrection
  *continue --- to do---=keep doing without stopping---
  *which was promised (to) Adam and Eve  (S promise O+O) 与える約束をする
  *(to relate)his incarnation, death, resurrection, and ascension; the state of the church till his second coming.

Adam greatly satisfied and re-comforted by these relations and promises descends the hill with Michael; wakens Eve, who all this while had slept, but with gentle dreams composed to quietness of mind and submission. Michael in either hand leads them out of Paradise, the fiery sword waving behind them, and the Cherubim taking their stations to guard the place.

 relations=narratives, tales, stories    descend=go or come down (a hill, stairs, etc.)
  compose=calm, settle    quietness of mind  i.e. presence of mind   submission<submit     fiery=flaming with fire
 wave(v)=move freely and gently, (like a flag in the wind)

  station=a position assigned to a man on duty (OED 7b. Phrases, to take (up), keep one’s stationとして、
  ここを引用している。「陣取る、位置を取る」

  *but --- composed --- i.e. but was composed with gentle dreams to quietness ---    [to は結果を表す]
  *the fiery sword waving ---, and the Cherubim taking --- 付帯構文














 参考 I


      以下の内容をお読み頂く場合は、お手持ちのディスプレイのサイズによっては[F11] のキーを押してご覧下さい。


崇高、雄大な長編叙事詩の最後の数行

Michael にそれぞれが手を引かれて Paradiseの門の外に出て、AdamEveが、
  今まで住んでいた幸せな場所を振り向いた後の、最後の部分は次のようになっています。

Some natural tears they dropped, but wiped soon;
The world was all before them, where to choose
Their place of rest, and Providence their guide.
They hand in hand with wandering steps and slow,

Through Eden took their solitary way.

Notes by Hokuto77:
world
=the earth and all created things upon it(OED)
before= open to(OED)
hand in hand=with hands mutually clasped; each holding the
    other's (or another's) hand
(OED)
wandering=(of things) travelling (or carried) along in an uncertain, or
  frequently changing direction; moved, or moving, (idly) to and fro

all=completely, quite  place of rest=residence, abode
Providence=God (taking protective care of people)
solitary=characterized by the absence of all
   companionship or
society (OED)=without companions
   (COD)

*Providence, their guide 同格
*where to choose---, and Providence --- は付帯
*with --- step and slow  ‘s’ の頭韻とリズムでslowを後
  に配置

 彼らの目からおのずから 涙があふれ落ちた。
しかし、すぐにそれを拭った。
世界が ━ そうだ、安住の地を求め選ぶべき世界が、今や
彼らの眼前に広々と横たわっていた。そして、摂理が彼らの
導き手であった。二人は手に手をとって、漂泊(さすらい)の足どりも
(ゆる)やかに、エデンを通って二人だけの寂しい路を辿(たど)っていった。 
[平井正穂訳]


*They --- took their solitary way.  wayの次に to --- との具体的な表現のない点で、一度ここを読めば、
何時までもその余韻が残ります。次元は全く異なりますが、童謡「月の砂漠」の中をラクダに乗って 二人きりで
進んでくい男女の行く末と重なります。


参考 II

崇高、雄大な長編叙事詩の最初の数行

                        (行右の数字は累積行数)
                              [平井正穂訳]

Of man’s first disobedience and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste
Brought death into the world, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden,
till one greater man

神に対する人間の最初の反逆と、また、あの禁断の
木の実について(人間がこれを食べたために、この世に
死とあらゆる苦悩がもたらされ、エデンの
園が失われ、そしてやがて一人の大いなる人が現れ、

1
2
3
4
Notes by hokuto77 and M.Shigeno:  大英和:研究社の新英和大辞典
mortal=causing death, deadly, fatal (OED 2 はここを引用)
woe=great unhappiness;bitter grief, distress
1
Of = about   fruit 果実 + 報い   Man's= mankind's (人類の---)
2
that forbidden tree the Tree of Knowledge(智恵、知識の木:善悪の判断を与える木)
Restore us, and regain the blissful seat,
Sing Heavenly Muse, that on the secret top
Of Oreb or of Sinai, didst inspire
That shepherd, who first taught the chosen seed,
In the beginning how the heavens and earth
Rose out of Chaos: or if Sion hill
われわれを(あがな)い、楽しき住処(すみか)を回復し給
   うのだが)━

おお、天にいます詩神よ、願わくばこれらのこと
   について

歌い給わらんことを!おお、汝、詩神よ、汝はか
   ってホレブの、

いな、シナイのひそかな山の頂において、選ばれ
   た民に向かい、

いかにして混沌より天と地が生じたかを初めて教
   えた、
あの
羊飼いに霊感を与え給うた。それとも、もし汝に
   して


5





10
restore元の状態にもどす    regain回復する   blissful 幸福に満ちた seat住む場所   secret 人目に
 つかない、奥まった
  
Oreb=Horeb()ホレブ(シナイ山[Mt.Sinai]の別称と言われる山; モーゼが神から十
 戒を授かった場所
だが異論が多い)  
 inspire 霊感を与える    chosen(救いのため)神に選ばれた
seed()()子孫    chosen seed 選民    Chaos 混沌
4 one greater Man i.e. Jesus Christ  5 Restore, regain i.e. Restores, regains
5 restore  death woe を無くして最初の人間の状態にする(MS)the blissful seat  i.e. Paradise, Eden
6~ Sing, Heavenly Muse, 呼びかけの依頼 Heavenly Museここでは詩の霊感を吹き込む女神
Sing ---  Of Man's first disobedience --- の構文    
thatの先行詞は Muse
7 didst inspire  *didstはVを強調
8 That shepherd i.e. Moses (Genesis の著者だと考えられている)
9 how In the beginning---の語順
Delight thee more, and Siola’s brook that
   flowed
Fast by the oracle of god; I thence
Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above the Aonian mount, while it pursues
Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme.

シオンの山、神の(みや)()の傍近く流れるシロアの小川
  の方を

好み給うのであれば、私は、その地より汝の援助(たすけ)を祈
  り求める ━

未だいかなる詩文においても試みられたことのないもろもろの
事柄を歌い、ヘリコンの山の上空高く飛び()けようとする
冒険にも等しい私の大胆な歌を、願わくば我をして歌わしめ
  給えと。

10




15

Sion hill  i.e. Mount Zion(Jerusalem旧市東南の丘;ここにDavidとその子孫は王宮を営み、神殿を建て、
 政治の中心とした
)(大英和)   
Siloa's brook  i.e. Siloam (聖書) シロアムの池(ソロモンの宮殿の近く;
  キリストの奇跡によってこの池の水で盲人が目を開いた(大英和)
fast by(古・詩)(--)間近に迫って
oracle=That part of theJewish Temple where the divine presence was manifested(OED)神託所
invoke aid 助けを求める     soar①高く飛ぶ②(他を圧するように) 高く歌う①+
Aonian アオニア地方の<Aonia ギリシャBoeotiaの一地方; Musesが住んだと伝えられる Helicon 山がある
   
(大英和)

pursue=treat of(MS)=try to obtain or accomplish; aim at(OED)   rhyme 韻文、詩
10---  or, if Sion hill --- the oracle of God, I thence Invoke ---を修飾
11 <参考>  And said unto him, Go, wash in the pool of Siloam,--- He went his way
   therefore, and washed, and came seeing  (John 9.7)
14 with no middle flight 中ほどの高さの飛行ではない
no--- は強調否定
15 the Aonian mount 暗にHesiodを指すとの見解もある( Penguin Classics-- John Leonard氏の注解) 
Hesiod 紀元前8世紀頃のギリシャの叙事詩人(大英和)


 To part one☞



































感 想

いきなり冒頭で、この叙事詩全体の主題が述べられました。man’s first disobediencefirstから推測すると、詩人Miltonの考えでは、人間の歴史は神の掟に背き続けてきたそれであって、その「最初の不従順」、「禁断の木の実を食べる」ことを大胆に取り上げて、楽園から追放され再度復権するまでの過程を、前人未到に、歌い上げるぞとの強い意気込みが、ひしひしと伝わってきます。
Notes by Kumano and M. Shigenoによる注釈が、本格的に登場する時には、もう少し、整然として、一層の正確さと、分かりやすくゆとりをもつ予定です。なんとなくうっとうしいようで、最初と最後を読んだから、もういいじゃん、などと思わないで下さい。必ずよいことがあります。 尚、上記の注解の中のイタリック体の語のほとんどは、インターネットで詳しい情報が入るでしょう。
詩を鑑賞する上で、単語の意味や、構文の理解が必要ですが
Milton の詩の特徴をよく理解して読むことが最も大事です。この詩は、無韻詩 (blank verse) と言われる特異なものです。詩の各行のリズム(音の強勢、強弱や弱強の連続)(meter) が主体となっています。各行の最後の単語の母音どうしが、一行おき、あるいは連続して同じ音である等々の「脚韻」(rhyme)がありません。詩が長編だからこの形式を採用したのだろうとの弁護説があります。詳しくは、本格的な注解のスタートで、紹介します。ちなみに、日本語による ウィキペディア の無韻詩の解説がネット上で見つかりませんでしたので、  blank verse  Wikipedia を入力してクリックすると以下のような情報が入りました。参考にして下さい。

 Blank verse is a type of poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no rhyme. In English, the meter most commonly used with blank verse has been iambic pentameter (like that which is used in Shakespearean plays). “---”. The major achievements in English blank verse were made by William Shakespeare, who wrote much of the content of his plays in unrhymed iambic pentameter, and Milton, whose Paradise Lost is written in blank verse. After Milton (in fact, during his later life), blank verse went out of fashion,”---”.

   *distinguished by ---  i.e. different from others in ---
  *iambic pentameter 弱強五歩格:一行の中に 母音の強勢が、弱強弱強弱強弱強弱強のように、弱強が五組連続する場合。このた
   めに、普通ならば、第二音節に強勢がある単語の場合も、強勢が第一音節に移ることがあり、あるいは、語順が入れ替わる。